Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Intra Articular Ozone Modulates Inflammation and Has Anabolic Effect on Knee Osteoarthritis: IL-6 and IGF-1 as Pro-Inflammatory and Anabolic Biomarkers

Version 1 : Received: 19 November 2021 / Approved: 29 November 2021 / Online: 29 November 2021 (19:08:10 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Fernández-Cuadros, M.E.; Pérez-Moro, O.S.; Albaladejo-Florín, M.J.; Tobar-Izquierdo, M.M.; Magaña-Sánchez, A.; Jiménez-Cuevas, P.; Rodríguez-de-Cía, J. Intra Articular Ozone Modulates Inflammation and Has Anabolic Effect on Knee Osteoarthritis: IL-6 and IGF-1 as Pro-Inflammatory and Anabolic Biomarkers. Processes 2022, 10, 138. Fernández-Cuadros, M.E.; Pérez-Moro, O.S.; Albaladejo-Florín, M.J.; Tobar-Izquierdo, M.M.; Magaña-Sánchez, A.; Jiménez-Cuevas, P.; Rodríguez-de-Cía, J. Intra Articular Ozone Modulates Inflammation and Has Anabolic Effect on Knee Osteoarthritis: IL-6 and IGF-1 as Pro-Inflammatory and Anabolic Biomarkers. Processes 2022, 10, 138.

Journal reference: Processes 2022, 10, 138
DOI: 10.3390/pr10010138

Abstract

Objectives: 1) to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and anabolic effect of Ozone by determining in serum samples the biochemical levels of IL-6 and IGF-1 in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients in a real world in Rehabilitation Setting; 2) to evaluate clinical effectiveness by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and WOMAC scale, and biochemical effect by C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Material and methods: 65 patients with knee OA Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade 2 or more were analyzed in a retrospective observational study. The study run from January 2018 to September 2021. Inclusion criteria: a) patients 18 years or older; b) with knee OA KL 2º or more; c) biochemical analysis before-and-after treatment; d) pain more than 3 on VAS. Exclusion Criteria: a) previous knee surgery; b) favism; c) pregnancy; d) any other disease that originates lack of collaboration for infiltration. Primary Outcome variables: a) IL-6; b) IGF-1 in diabetes mellitus (DM)/obese and non-DM/non-obese patients; both before-and-after Ozone treatment. Secondary Outcome variables: a) CRP, b) ESR, c) uric acid, d) VAS pain, e) WOMAC pain, function and stiffness. Ozone protocol consisted of 4 sessions (once a week) of an intra-articular infiltration of 20 mL (20µg/mL concentration) of a gas mixture of Oxygen-Ozone 95-5% (produced by Ozone generator Ozonosan-α Plus ®). For biochemical evaluation, SNIBE MAGLUMI ™ IL-6 (CLIA) and SNIBE MAGLUMI ™ IGF-1 (CLIA) kits were used. CRP and uric acid were analyzed by Abbott Alinity c kit; and ESR was evaluated by DIESSE VES MATIC CUBE 30. Results: There is a linear correlation between age and OA severity. IL-6 decreased both in DM and non-DM patients and in all OA KL grades (from 2.7 to 1.59 pg/mL). IGF-1 decreased in total group (OA + DM + obesity) from 112.09 to 107.19 ng/mL. When only knee OA patients were analyzed, Ozone improved IGF-1 levels (from 100.17 to 102.03 ng/mL). Ozone decreased CRP, ESR, uric acid, and improved VAS pain, WOMAC pain, function and stiffness (p<0.05). Conclusions: Ozone is a valid option for the management of knee osteoarthritis in real world Rehabilitation Setting, because of its anti-inflammatory, metabolic and anabolic properties. Ozone downregulates pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine. Ozone has a metabolic/hypoglycemic effect on obese/diabetic knee osteoarthritis patients by reducing IGF-1. Ozone has an anabolic effect on non-diabetic/non-obese patients by improving IGF-1. Ozone reduces other biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, ESR and uric acid) and improves, pain, function and quality of life.

Keywords

ozone; ozone therapy; cytokines; biomarkers; IL-6; inflammation; chronic inflammation; IGF-1; anabolism; knee osteoarthritis; pain; function; c-reactive protein; uric acid

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, General Medical Research

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