Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Unified Explanation of Big Bang, Inflation, Charged Black Hole Decay, Galaxy Formation, Proton Spin Crisis and Elementary Particle Masses

Version 1 : Received: 27 September 2021 / Approved: 28 September 2021 / Online: 28 September 2021 (11:26:45 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 9 October 2021 / Approved: 11 October 2021 / Online: 11 October 2021 (11:46:24 CEST)

How to cite: Hwang, J. Unified Explanation of Big Bang, Inflation, Charged Black Hole Decay, Galaxy Formation, Proton Spin Crisis and Elementary Particle Masses. Preprints 2021, 2021090467 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0467.v1). Hwang, J. Unified Explanation of Big Bang, Inflation, Charged Black Hole Decay, Galaxy Formation, Proton Spin Crisis and Elementary Particle Masses. Preprints 2021, 2021090467 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0467.v1).

Abstract

Space-time evolution is briefly explained by using the 3-dimensional quantized space model (TQSM) based on the 4-dimensional (4-D) Euclidean space. The energy (E=cDtDV), charges (|q|= cDt) and absolute time (ct) are newly defined based on the 4-D Euclidean space. The big bang is understood by the space-time evolution of the 4-D Euclidean space but not by the sudden 4-D Minkowski space-time creation. The big bang process created the matter universe with the positive energy and the partner anti-matter universe with the negative energy from the CPT symmetry. Our universe is the matter universe with the negative charges of electric charge (EC), lepton charge (LC) and color charge (CC). This first universe is made of three dark matter -, lepton -, and quark - primary black holes with the huge negative charges which cause the Coulomb repulsive forces much bigger than the gravitational forces. The huge Coulomb forces induce the inflation of the primary black holes, that decay to the super-massive black holes. The dark matter super-massive black holes surrounded by the normal matters and dark matters make the galaxies and galaxy clusters. The spiral arms of galaxies are closely related to the decay of the 3-D charged normal matter black holes to the 1-D charged normal matter black holes. The elementary leptons and quarks are created by the decay of the normal matter charged black holes, that is caused by the Coulomb forces much stronger than the gravitational forces. The Coulomb forces are very weak with the very small Coulomb constants (k1(EC) = kdd(EC) ) for the dark matters and very strong with the very big Coulomb constants (k2(EC) = knn(EC)) for the normal matters because of the non-communication of the photons between the dark matters and normal matters. The photons are charge dependent and mass independent. But the dark matters and normal matters have the similar and very weak gravitational forces because of the communication of the gravitons between the dark matters and normal matters. The gravitons are charge independent and mass dependent. Note that the three kinds of charges (EC, LC and CC) and one kind of mass (m) exist in our matter universe. The dark matters, leptons and quarks have the charge configurations of (EC), (EC,LC) and (EC,LC,CC), respectively. Partial masses of elementary fermions are calculated, and the proton spin crisis is explained. The charged black holes are not the singularities.

Keywords

Elementary particles; Galaxy structures; Charged black hole decay; Big bang and inflation; Super-massive black holes; Coulomb forces; Proton spin crisis; Universe evolution; 4-D Euclidean space.

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