Jensen, P.D.L.; Wang, F.; Dimino, I.; Sigmund, O. Topology Optimization of Large-Scale 3D Morphing Wing Structures. Actuators2021, 10, 217.
Jensen, P.D.L.; Wang, F.; Dimino, I.; Sigmund, O. Topology Optimization of Large-Scale 3D Morphing Wing Structures. Actuators 2021, 10, 217.
This work proposes a systematic topology optimization approach to simultaneously design the morphing functionality and actuation in three-dimensional wing structures. The actuation is assumed to be a linear strain-based expansion in the actuation material and a three-phase material model is employed to represent structural and actuating materials, and void. To ensure both structural stiffness with respect to aerodynamic loading and morphing capabilities, the optimization problem is formulated to minimize structural compliance while morphing functionality is enforced by constraining a morphing error between actual and target wing shape. Moreover, a feature mapping approach is utilized to constrain and simplify actuator geometries. A trailing edge wing section is designed to validate the proposed optimization approach. Numerical results demonstrate that three-dimensional optimized wing sections utilize a more advanced structural layout to enhance structural performance while keeping morphing functionality than two-dimensional wing ribs. The work presents the first step towards systematic design of three-dimensional morphing wing sections.
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