Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Father Presence, Father Engagement, and Child Outcomes in Mongolia

Version 1 : Received: 17 May 2021 / Approved: 18 May 2021 / Online: 18 May 2021 (10:57:34 CEST)

How to cite: Pablo, L.; Erkhembayar, R.; Davison, C.M. Father Presence, Father Engagement, and Child Outcomes in Mongolia. Preprints 2021, 2021050416 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0416.v1). Pablo, L.; Erkhembayar, R.; Davison, C.M. Father Presence, Father Engagement, and Child Outcomes in Mongolia. Preprints 2021, 2021050416 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0416.v1).

Abstract

This study explored father involvement as a social determinant of child health within the context of macro-environmental changes in Mongolia. Using data for children aged 3-4 from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, this cross-sectional analysis examined the association between father presence and engagement with child health and educational outcomes. Multivariate regression modeling was employed to identify associations between father presence, engagement, and child outcomes including fever, respiratory illness, diarrhea and preschool attendance. In unadjusted analyses, father engagement was associated with higher odds of pre-school attendance (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.20) but not with child illness (OR=1.04; 95% CI 0.95-1.14). Father engagement was no longer associated with pre-school attendance after controlling for potentially confounding variables (ORadj = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88-1.03). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed that father presence was not associated with acute illness or preschool attendance. Results also suggest that a larger proportion of children were engaged in activities by their mother compared to their father or other adults. Data indicate that father presence and engagement were not associated with child illness or pre-school attendance. Factors such as maternal education, household wealth, and region of residence are stronger predictors of preschool attendance and should continue to be considered for promoting child health and development in Mongolia.

Subject Areas

Early Childhood Education; Mongolia; Father Involvement; Health Determinants; Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

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