Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Gender Differences in Urothelial Bladder Cancer. Effects of Natural Killer Lymphocyte Immunity

Version 1 : Received: 13 May 2021 / Approved: 14 May 2021 / Online: 14 May 2021 (13:45:35 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 10 September 2021 / Approved: 15 September 2021 / Online: 15 September 2021 (12:21:27 CEST)

How to cite: Lutz, C.T.; Livas, L.; Presnell, S.R.R.; Sexton, M.; Wang, P. Gender Differences in Urothelial Bladder Cancer. Effects of Natural Killer Lymphocyte Immunity. Preprints 2021, 2021050335 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0335.v1). Lutz, C.T.; Livas, L.; Presnell, S.R.R.; Sexton, M.; Wang, P. Gender Differences in Urothelial Bladder Cancer. Effects of Natural Killer Lymphocyte Immunity. Preprints 2021, 2021050335 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0335.v1).

Abstract

Men are more likely to develop cancer than women. In fact, male predominance is one of the most consistent cancer epidemiology findings. Additionally, men have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of secondary malignancies compared to women. These differences have been investigated in order to better understand cancer and to better treat both men and women. In this review, we discuss factors that may cause this gender difference, focusing on urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) pathogenesis. We consider physiological factors that may cause higher male cancer rates, including differences in X chromosome gene expression. We discuss how androgens may promote bladder cancer development directly by stimulating bladder urothelium and indirectly by suppressing immunity. We are particularly interested in natural killer (NK) cells because they are important, but often overlooked anti-cancer lymphocytes.

Keywords

Urothelial bladder cancer; Natural Killer Cells; Androgens; Immunosuppression; X Chromosome

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