Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Lensing Effects in Retarded Gravity

Version 1 : Received: 2 May 2021 / Approved: 6 May 2021 / Online: 6 May 2021 (15:28:22 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Yahalom, A. Lensing Effects in Retarded Gravity. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1062. Yahalom, A. Lensing Effects in Retarded Gravity. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1062.


Galaxies are huge physical systems having dimensions of many tens of thousands of light years. Thus any change at the galactic center will be noticed at the rim only tens of thousands of years later. Those retardation effects seems to be neglected in present day galactic modelling used to calculate rotational velocities of matter in the rims of the galaxy and surrounding gas. The significant differences between the predictions of Newtonian instantaneous action at a distance and observed velocities are usually explained by either assuming dark matter or by modifying the laws of gravity (MOND). In this paper we will show that taking general relativity seriously without neglecting retardation effects one can explain the apparent excess matter leading to gravitational lensing in both galaxies and galaxy clusters.


spacetime symmetry; relativity of spacetime; retardation; lensing


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

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