Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Catecholaldehyde Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Catecholaminergic Neurodegeneration: What We Know and What We Don’t Know

Version 1 : Received: 30 April 2021 / Approved: 3 May 2021 / Online: 3 May 2021 (09:08:57 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Goldstein, D.S. The Catecholaldehyde Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Catecholaminergic Neurodegeneration: What We Know and What We Do Not Know. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5999. Goldstein, D.S. The Catecholaldehyde Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Catecholaminergic Neurodegeneration: What We Know and What We Do Not Know. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5999.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5999
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22115999

Abstract

3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is the focus of the catecholaldehyde hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and other Lewy body diseases. The catecholaldehyde is produced via oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase (MAO) acting on cytoplasmic dopamine. DOPAL is autotoxic, in that it can harm the same cells in which it is produced. Normally DOPAL is detoxified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-mediated conversion to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), which rapidly exits the neurons. Genetic, environmental, or drug-induced manipulations of ALDH that build up DOPAL promote catecholaminergic neurodegeneration. A concept derived from the catecholaldehyde hypothesis imputes deleterious interactions between DOPAL and the protein alpha-synuclein (S), a major component of Lewy bodies. DOPAL potently oligomerizes S, and S oligomers impede vesicular and mitochondrial functions, shifting the fate of cytoplasmic dopamine toward MAO-catalyzed formation of DOPAL—destabilizing vicious cycles. Direct and indirect effects of DOPAL and of DOPAL-induced misfolded proteins could “freeze” intra-neuronal reactions, plasticity of which is required for neuronal homeostasis. The extent to which DOPAL toxicity is mediated by interactions with S, and vice versa, are poorly understood. Because of numerous secondary effects such as augmented spontaneous oxidation of dopamine by MAO inhibition, there has been insufficient testing of the catecholaldehyde hypothesis in animal models. The clinical pathophysiological significance of genetics, emotional stress, environmental agents, and interactions with numerous proteins relevant to the catecholaldehyde hypothesis are matters for future research. The imposing complexity of intra-neuronal catecholamine metabolism seems to require a computational modeling approach to elucidate clinical pathogenetic mechanisms and devise pathophysiology-based, individualized treatments.

Keywords

Catecholaldehyde; DOPAL; Autotoxicity; Monoamine Oxidase; Dopamine; Alpha-Synuclein

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