Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

On the Importance of Passive Acoustic Monitoring Filters

Version 1 : Received: 28 April 2021 / Approved: 29 April 2021 / Online: 29 April 2021 (07:55:09 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Aguiar, R.; Maguolo, G.; Nanni, L.; Costa, Y.; Silla, C., Jr. On the Importance of Passive Acoustic Monitoring Filters. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 685. Aguiar, R.; Maguolo, G.; Nanni, L.; Costa, Y.; Silla, C., Jr. On the Importance of Passive Acoustic Monitoring Filters. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 685.

Journal reference: J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 685
DOI: 10.3390/jmse9070685

Abstract

Abstract: Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a non-invasive technique to supervise the wildlife. Acoustic surveillance is preferable in some situation such as in the case of marine mammals, when the animals spend most of their time underwater, making it hard to obtain their images. Machine learning is very useful for PAM, for example, to identify species based on audio recordings. But some care should be taken to evaluate the capability of a system. We define PAM-filters as the creation of the experimental protocols according to the dates and locations of the recordings, aiming to avoid the use of the same individuals, noise and recording devices in both training and test sets. A random division of a database present accuracies much higher than accuracies obtained with protocols generated with PAM-filter. Although we use the animal vocalizations, in our method we convert the audio into spectrogram images, after that, we describe the images using the texture. Those are well-known techniques for audio classification, and they have already been used for species classification. Also, we perform statistical tests to demonstrate the significant difference between accuracies generated with and without PAM-filters with several well-known classifiers. The configuration of our experimental protocols and the database were made available online.

Keywords

PAM; Passive acoustic monitoring; audio classification; texture classification; PAM- 16 filter; experimental protocols for audio classification; statistical tests.

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Algebra & Number Theory

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