Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Ethidium binding to Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Cells and Salmon sperm DNA

Version 1 : Received: 16 April 2021 / Approved: 18 April 2021 / Online: 18 April 2021 (10:14:56 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sakalauskaitė, S.; Mikalayeva, V.; Daugelavičius, R. Ethidium Binding to Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Cells and Salmon Sperm DNA. Molecules 2021, 26, 3386. Sakalauskaitė, S.; Mikalayeva, V.; Daugelavičius, R. Ethidium Binding to Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium Cells and Salmon Sperm DNA. Molecules 2021, 26, 3386.

Journal reference: Molecules 2021, 26, 3386
DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113386

Abstract

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics due to an increased efficiency of the efflux is a serious problem in clinics of infectious diseases. Knowledge of the factors affecting the activity of efflux pumps would help to find the solution. For this, fast and trustful methods for the efflux analysis are needed. Here we analyzed how the assay conditions affect the accumulation of efflux indicators ethidium (Et+) and tetraphenylphosphonium in Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium cells. An inhibitor phenyl-alanyl-arginyl-β-naphtylamide was applied to evaluate the input of RND family pumps into the total efflux. In parallel to spectrofluorimetric analysis, we used an electrochemical assessment of Et+ concentration. Results of our experiments indicated that Et+ fluorescence increases immediately after the penetration of this indicator into the cells. However, when cells bind a high amount of Et+, intensity of the fluorescence reaches the saturation level and stops reacting to the accumulated amount of this indicator. For this reason, electrochemical measurements provide more trustful information about the efficiency of efflux when cells accumulate high amounts of Et+. Measure-ments of Et+ interaction with the purified DNA demonstrated that affinity of this lipophilic cation to DNA depends on the medium composition. The capacity of DNA to bind Et+ considerably de-creases in presence of Mg2+, Polymyxin B or when DNA is incubated in high ionic strength media.

Subject Areas

ethidium; tetraphenylphosphonium; multidrug resistance; outer membrane permeability; efflux inhibitor; phenylalanyl-arginyl-β-naphtylamide, Polymyxin B

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