Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Mammalian NREM and REM Sleep. Why, How and When

Version 1 : Received: 2 March 2021 / Approved: 9 March 2021 / Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:11 CET)

How to cite: Rial, R.V.; Akaârir, M.; Canellas, F.; Gamundi, A.; Martín Reina, A.; Barceló, P.; Rubiño, J.A.; Nicolau, M.C. Mammalian NREM and REM Sleep. Why, How and When. Preprints 2021, 2021030261 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0261.v1). Rial, R.V.; Akaârir, M.; Canellas, F.; Gamundi, A.; Martín Reina, A.; Barceló, P.; Rubiño, J.A.; Nicolau, M.C. Mammalian NREM and REM Sleep. Why, How and When. Preprints 2021, 2021030261 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0261.v1).

Abstract

Three types of wakefulness appeared along the vertebrate’s phylogeny and ontogeny: spinal-rhombencephalic in fish, brainstem-diencephalic in reptiles and cortical in mammals, in which the paralyzed spinal-rhombencephalic wake and the brainstem-diencephalic wake remain as REMS and NREMS The spinal-rhombencephalic and cortical types of wake are inherently anti-homeostatic. Animals must forage, reproduce, and survive to predation disregarding the environmental circumstances, hence temporarily forgetting the homeostatic regulation. After fulfilling the vital functions, the brainstem-diencephalic wake recovers the homeostatic control. The phasic signs of REMS are adaptive in immature mammals, serving for demanding heat, milk and defense to their mother. These advantages outweigh the REMS' poikilostasis in infants. The adults’ poikilostasis of REMS is harmless in thermoneutral environments but is mal-adaptive in aquatic environments in which REMS is reduced or even disappears. These exceptions explain the anomalous examples of REMS. An on-off hypothalamic switch homeostatically regulates the entrance and exit from REMS. Furthermore, the vital phasic signs of REMS depend on a second pontine proportional homeostatic control. Altogether, they regulate the expression of REMS.

Keywords

Evolution of sleep, NREM sleep, REM sleep, Rhombencephalic-spinal wake, Diencephalic wake, Cortical wake

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