Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Machine Learning-Based Approach to Predict Insect-Herbivory-Damage and Insect-Type Attack in Maize Plants Using Hyperspectral Data

Version 1 : Received: 19 February 2021 / Approved: 22 February 2021 / Online: 22 February 2021 (17:20:41 CET)

How to cite: Furuya, D.E.G.; Faita Pinheiro, M.M.; Gomes, F.D.G.; Gonçalves, W.N.; Marcato Júnior, J.; Rodrigues, D.D.C.; Blassioli-Moraes, M.C.; Michereff, M.F.F.; Borges, M.; Alberto Alaumann, R.; Ferreira, E.J.; Marques Ramos, A.P.; Osco, L.P.; Jorge, L.A.D.C. Machine Learning-Based Approach to Predict Insect-Herbivory-Damage and Insect-Type Attack in Maize Plants Using Hyperspectral Data. Preprints 2021, 2021020498 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0498.v1). Furuya, D.E.G.; Faita Pinheiro, M.M.; Gomes, F.D.G.; Gonçalves, W.N.; Marcato Júnior, J.; Rodrigues, D.D.C.; Blassioli-Moraes, M.C.; Michereff, M.F.F.; Borges, M.; Alberto Alaumann, R.; Ferreira, E.J.; Marques Ramos, A.P.; Osco, L.P.; Jorge, L.A.D.C. Machine Learning-Based Approach to Predict Insect-Herbivory-Damage and Insect-Type Attack in Maize Plants Using Hyperspectral Data. Preprints 2021, 2021020498 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0498.v1).

Abstract

A strategy to reduce qualitative and quantitative losses in crop-yields refers to early and accurate detection of insect-damage caused in plants. Remote sensing systems like hyperspectral proximal sensors are a promising strategy for managing crops. In this aspect, machine learning predictions associated with clustering techniques may be an interesting approach mainly because of its robustness to evaluate high dimensional data. In this paper, we model the spectral response of insect-herbivory-damage in maize plants and propose an approach based on machine learning and a clustering method to predict whether the plant is herbivore-attacked or not using leaf reflectance measurements. We differentiate insect-type damage based on the spectral response and indicate the most contributive wavelengths to perform it. For this, we used a maize experiment in semi-field conditions. The maize plants were submitted to three different treatments: control (health plants); plants submitted to Spodoptera frugiperda herbivory-damage, and; plants submitted to Dichelops melacanthus herbivory-damage. The leaf spectral response of all plants (controlled and submitted to herbivory) was measured with a FieldSpec 3.0 Spectroradiometer from 350 to 2500 nm for eight consecutive days. We evaluated the performance of different learners like random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), extreme gradient boost (XGB), neural networks (MLP), and measured the impact of a day-by-day analysis into the prediction. We proposed a novel framework with a ranking strategy, based on the accuracy returned by predictions, and a clusterization method based on a self-organizing map (SOM) to identify important regions in the reflectance measurement. Our results indicated that the RF-based framework algorithm is the overall best learner to deal with this type of data. After the 5th day of analysis, the accuracy of the algorithm improved substantially. It separated the three treatments into different groups with an F-measure equal to 0.967, 0.917, and 0.881, respectively. We also verified that the most contributive spectral regions are situated in the near-infrared domain. We conclude that the proposed approach with machine learning methods is adequate to monitor herbivory-damage of S. frugiperda and stink bugs like Dichelops melacanthus in maize, differentiating the types of insect-attack early on. We also demonstrate that the framework proposed for the analysis of the most contributive wavelengths is suitable to highlight spectral regions of interest.

Subject Areas

proximal hyperspectral sensing; precision agriculture; random forest

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