Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Asymptotic Freedom, Quark Confinement, Proton Spin Crisis, Neutron Structure, Dark Matters, and Relative force strengths

Version 1 : Received: 16 February 2021 / Approved: 17 February 2021 / Online: 17 February 2021 (13:32:57 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 9 October 2021 / Approved: 13 October 2021 / Online: 13 October 2021 (10:31:18 CEST)

How to cite: Hwang, J. Asymptotic Freedom, Quark Confinement, Proton Spin Crisis, Neutron Structure, Dark Matters, and Relative force strengths. Preprints 2021, 2021020395 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0395.v2). Hwang, J. Asymptotic Freedom, Quark Confinement, Proton Spin Crisis, Neutron Structure, Dark Matters, and Relative force strengths. Preprints 2021, 2021020395 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202102.0395.v2).

Abstract

The relative force strengths of the Coulomb forces, gravitational forces, dark matter forces, weak forces and strong forces are compared for the dark matters, leptons, quarks, and normal matters (p and n baryons) in terms of the 3-D quantized space model. The quark confinement and asymptotic freedom are explained by the CC merging to the A(CC=-5)3 state. The proton with the (EC,LC,CC) charge configuration of p(1,0,-5) is p(1,0) + A(CC=-5)3. The A(CC=-5)3 state has the 99.6% of the proton mass. The three quarks in p(1,0,-5) are asymptotically free in the EC and LC space of p(1,0) and are strongly confined in the CC space of A(CC=-5)3. This means that the lepton beams in the deep inelastic scattering interact with three quarks in p(1,0) by the EC interaction and weak interaction. Then, the observed spin is the partial spin of p(1,0) which is 32.6 % of the total spin (1/2) of the proton. The A(CC=-5)3 state has the 67.4 % of the proton spin. This explains the proton spin crisis. The EC charge distribution of the proton is the same to the EC charge distribution of p(1,0) which indicates that three quarks in p(1,0) are mostly near the proton surface. From the EC charge distribution of neutron, the 2 lepton system (called as the koron) of the koron is, for the first time, reported in the present work.

Keywords

Quark confinement; Asymptotic freedom; Relative force strength; Dark matters; Proton crisis; Deep inelastic scattering; Neutron structure; Two lepton system

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 13 October 2021
Commenter: Jae-Kwang Hwang
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 are replaced with the modified new figures. Several related sentences are changed.
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