Preprint Essay Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Evidence-Based Management of Gout - A Systematic Search and Review

Version 1 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 7 December 2020 / Online: 7 December 2020 (13:10:24 CET)

How to cite: Siddiq, M.A.B. Evidence-Based Management of Gout - A Systematic Search and Review. Preprints 2020, 2020120156. Siddiq, M.A.B. Evidence-Based Management of Gout - A Systematic Search and Review. Preprints 2020, 2020120156.


Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis. Hyperuricaemia is the pre-requisite for gout and is influenced by variable modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Clinical features unique for gout are due to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal in articular and extra articular tissues. Among various treating agents, anti-inflammatory drugs and urate lowering therapies (ULT) are used widely and successfully, however, non-medicinal means are also effective in the disorder. In their updated guidelines, ACR (2012) and EULAR (2016) recommended both medicinal and non-medicinal approaches that could be used in treating gout, though some of the recommendations are based on lower level of evidence. Moreover, researchers’ continued effort in finding new gout managing agents appear promising, for example, role of Lesinurad in gout management (CLEAR1, CLEAR2). In this new synthesis the author is aimed to provide updated information on gout management based on a systematic review including published work within last ten years between 2008 and 2018 and for this purpose, using ‘clinical trials in gout management’ string, published worked searched in PubMed database from 1st September 2018 to 30 October 2018. Besides the recent ACR and EULAR evidence based management guidelines, the author reviewed another 91 (total 93) articles to make this new draft – 39 articles describe role of pharmacological agents and 54 describe different gout risks, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of ULT, association between raised sUA level and renal impairment, efficacy of non-pharmacological agents in reducing sUA. According to published work, anti-inflammatory agent is the most appropriate drug group in mitigating inflammatory symptoms of gout, though they often adversely affect over other vital 2 organs with impaired function. Besides ULT, uricase analogues are also found useful in non refractory gout. Since anti-inflammatory agents and ULT contraindicate in some clinical conditions, intra-articular steroid and or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are appropriate alternatives instead. However, head-to-head comparison between different NSAIDs, NSAID and prednisolone, NSAID and colchicine are yet to perform. Use of combined anti-inflammatory preparations in gout is also based on lower level of evidence. Regarding effective maximum dose and long-standing impact of ULT on vital organs we are yet to reach a conclusion. Likewise, non-medicinal approaches are widely using in achieving target sUA level, though some of them are based on biased study outcomes and or study with inadequate power, requiring further analysis. Among non-pharmacological approaches, life-style modification, restriction of purine rich diets, avoidance of gout inciting agents are important, but inconclusive. Educating patients’ about diseases, risk factors, available treatment options and side effects from them are also important in terms of achieving sUA level, nevertheless too much counseling sometimes could be worthless.


gout; hyperuricemia; lesinurad; life style; prednisolone; uric acid; urate oxidase


Medicine and Pharmacology, Immunology and Allergy

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