Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer using Nickel-laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash

Version 1 : Received: 21 November 2020 / Approved: 23 November 2020 / Online: 23 November 2020 (11:11:30 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 16 December 2020 / Approved: 17 December 2020 / Online: 17 December 2020 (11:43:45 CET)
(This article belongs to the Research Topic Ecofriendly Materials)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Longos, A., Jr.; Tigue, A.A.; Dollente, I.J.; Malenab, R.A.; Bernardo-Arugay, I.; Hinode, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Promentilla, M.A. Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer Using Nickel-Laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash. Minerals 2020, 10, 1144. Longos, A., Jr.; Tigue, A.A.; Dollente, I.J.; Malenab, R.A.; Bernardo-Arugay, I.; Hinode, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Promentilla, M.A. Optimization of the Mix Formulation of Geopolymer Using Nickel-Laterite Mine Waste and Coal Fly Ash. Minerals 2020, 10, 1144.

Journal reference: Minerals 2020, 10, 1144
DOI: 10.3390/min10121144

Abstract

Geopolymer cement has been popularly studied nowadays compared to ordinary Portland cement because it demonstrated superior environmental advantages due to its lower carbon emissions and waste material utilization. This paper focuses on the formulation of geopolymer cement from nickel-laterite mine waste (NMW) and coal fly ash (CFA) as geopolymer precursors, and sodium hydroxide (SH) and sodium silicate (SS) as alkali activators. Different mix formulations of raw materials are synthesized to produce a geopolymer based from an I-optimal design and obtained different compressive strengths. A mixed formulation of 50% NMW and 50% CFA, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.5, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.429 yielded the highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 22.10 ± 5.40 MPa. Furthermore, using an optimized formulation of 50.12% NMW, SH-to-SS ratio of 0.516, and an activator-to-precursor ratio of 0.428, a UCS value of 36.30 ± 3.60 MPa was obtained. The result implies that the synthesized geopolymer material can be potentially used for concrete structures and pavers, pedestrian pavers, light traffic pavers, and plain concrete.

Subject Areas

geopolymer; laterite; alkali-activated; alumino-silicates; I-optimal; response surface methodology; optimization; mine waste.

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 17 December 2020
Commenter: Michael Angelo Promentilla
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Revisions are incorporated in the abstract and body of manuscript including Tables and Figures as per the suggestion of the reviewers.
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