Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Exercise as an Adjuvant to Bone and Cartilage Regeneration Therapy

Version 1 : Received: 6 November 2020 / Approved: 9 November 2020 / Online: 9 November 2020 (10:00:10 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Smith, J.K. Exercise as an Adjuvant to Cartilage Regeneration Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9471. Smith, J.K. Exercise as an Adjuvant to Cartilage Regeneration Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9471.


Abstract: This article provides a brief review of the ontogeny of chondrocytes and the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), and details how physical exercise improves the health of osteoarthritic joints and enhances the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for successful transplantation therapy. In response to exercise chondrocytes increase their production of glycosaminoglycans, bone morphogenic proteins and antiinflammatory cytokines and decrease their production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading metalloproteinases. These changes are associated with improvements in cartilage organization and reductions in cartilage degeneration. Studies in humans indicate that exercise increases peripheral blood recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) and upregulates BM-MSC expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes, osteogenic micro-RNAs, and osteogenic growth factors. Rodent experiments are uniform in demonstrating that exercise enhances the osteogenic potential of BM-MSC while diminishing their adipogenic potential, and that exercise done after stem cell implantation may benefit stem cell transplant viability. Physical exercise also exerts a beneficial effect on the skeletal system by decreasing immune cell production of osteoclastogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ while increasing their production anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. In conclusion, physical exercise done both by stem cell donors and recipients may improve the outcome of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.


Keywords Exercise; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; mesenchymal stem cells; hematopoietic stem cells; stem cell transplantation; chondroblasts; chondrocytes; cytokines.


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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