Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Systematic Review on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Version 1 : Received: 19 August 2020 / Approved: 24 August 2020 / Online: 24 August 2020 (09:31:38 CEST)

How to cite: Karim, H.; Khan, M. S. A Systematic Review on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Preprints 2020, 2020080516. Karim, H.; Khan, M. S. A Systematic Review on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Preprints 2020, 2020080516.


Emerging and reemerging pathogens is a global challenge for public health. Recently, a novel coronavirus disease emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, in December 2019. It is named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO). It is known to be caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are structurally more complicated as compared to other RNA viruses. This viral epidemic has led to the deaths of many, including the elderly or those with chronic disease or compromised immunity. Viruses cause infection and diseases in humans of varying degrees, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) cause common cold while lower respiratory tract infections induce pneumonia, bronchitis, and even severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The costs of COVID-19 are not limited. It equally affects all the medical, sociological, psychological, and economic aspects globally. This is regarded as the third deadly outbreak in the last two decades after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS (2002–2003) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS (2012). Based on the sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2, different animal sources including bats, snakes, and pangolins have been reported as potential carriers of this viral strain. Real-time RT-PCR represents the primary method for the diagnosis of new emerging viral strain SARS-CoV-2. The transmission dynamics suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person-to-person through direct contact or coughing, sneezing, and by respiratory droplets. Several anti-viral treatments including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, and abidor are also suggested with different recommendations and prescriptions. Protective and preventive strategies as suggested by various health organization i.e. WHO and US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) must be adopted by everyone. This review covers the important aspects of novel COVID-19 including characteristics, virology, symptoms, diagnostics, clinical aspects, transmission dynamics, and protective measures of COVID-19.


Coronavirus, sequence homology, transmission, virology, diagnosis, virus control, vaccination.


Medicine and Pharmacology, Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases

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