Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The History of Domesticated Dogs in the Americas

Version 1 : Received: 18 August 2020 / Approved: 20 August 2020 / Online: 20 August 2020 (09:52:56 CEST)

How to cite: Segura, V.; Geiger, M.; Monson, T.A.; Flores, D.; Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. The History of Domesticated Dogs in the Americas. Preprints 2020, 2020080453 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0453.v1). Segura, V.; Geiger, M.; Monson, T.A.; Flores, D.; Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. The History of Domesticated Dogs in the Americas. Preprints 2020, 2020080453 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0453.v1).

Abstract

Records of domestic dogs in the Americas include specimens from North American sites dating as far back as 10,000 to 8,400 ybp and from the Andes of South America from 5,600-5,000 ybp. Dogs accompanied humans in several migrations from Asia to America BCE, as revealed by different haplotypes reported from ancient DNA studies. Dog acquisition by Amazonian cultures began towards the end of the nineteenth century. Pre-Columbian size and shape diversity in North America is first recorded around 4,000 ybp, with varieties such as the hairless, short nosed and loberro dogs. The humped kind may represent a phenotype associated with mutations in the myostatin gene. Pre-Columbian forms from the Andes included a shepherd-like, hairless, dachshund-like, bulldog, shortened snout and long snout kinds. More than 41 domestic dog breeds that originated in the Americas are currently recognized by kennel clubs. Some records previously attributed to domestic dogs are from other canids, such as Dusicyon avus. Hybridization with wolves and coyotes may have been an old practice contributing genetic diversity to pre and post-Columbian American dogs. Archaeological, historical, and ethnographic records reveal dogs being used for hunting, transport, food, rituals, company, and defense. The Coast Salish First Nations exploited so-called woolly dogs for manufacturing blankets, with practices associated with their care and marine food diet, as documented by isotopic studies and accounts from the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Subject Areas

Archaeology; Morphology; ancient DNA; feralisation; hybridization; breed; Salish dogs; xoloitzcuintle; Canis; skulls

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