Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Monitoring the Redox Status in Multiple Sclerosis

Version 1 : Received: 29 July 2020 / Approved: 31 July 2020 / Online: 31 July 2020 (08:40:46 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 28 August 2020 / Approved: 31 August 2020 / Online: 31 August 2020 (04:01:49 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 21 September 2020 / Approved: 22 September 2020 / Online: 22 September 2020 (08:42:20 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Tanaka, M.; Vécsei, L. Monitoring the Redox Status in Multiple Sclerosis. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 406. Tanaka, M.; Vécsei, L. Monitoring the Redox Status in Multiple Sclerosis. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 406.


Worldwide, over 2.2 million people are suffered from multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory or demyelinating attacks associated with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and postmortem brain samples of MS patients evidenced the presence of reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis disturbance such as the alternations of oxidative and antioxidative enzyme activities and the presence of degradation products. This review article discussed the components of redox homeostasis including reactive chemical species, oxidative enzymes, antioxidative enzymes, and degradation products. The reactive chemical species covered frequently discussed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, rarely featured reactive chemicals such as sulfur, carbonyls, halogens, selenium, and nucleophilic species that potentially act as reductive as well as pro-oxidative stressors. The antioxidative enzyme systems covered the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signaling pathway, a possible biomarker sensitive to the initial phase of oxidative stress. Altered components of the redox homeostasis in MS were discussed, some of which turned to be MS subtype- or treatment-specific and thus potentially become diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and/or therapeutic biomarkers. Finally, monitoring a battery of redox components including oxidative, antioxidative and degradation products helps evaluate the redox status of MS patients, which expedites prolongation of remission, relapse prevention, and building personalized treatment plans.


oxidative stress; redox; antioxidant; multiple sclerosis; biomarker; neurodegenerative disease; personalized medicine


Medicine and Pharmacology, Psychiatry and Mental Health

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