Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

On the Fundamental Constants of Nature

Version 1 : Received: 1 June 2020 / Approved: 3 June 2020 / Online: 3 June 2020 (13:55:32 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 11 September 2020 / Approved: 14 September 2020 / Online: 14 September 2020 (07:32:31 CEST)

How to cite: Humpherys, D. On the Fundamental Constants of Nature. Preprints 2020, 2020060017. Humpherys, D. On the Fundamental Constants of Nature. Preprints 2020, 2020060017.


Planck units of length, mass, and time are fundamental constants of nature. Traditional constants including Planck's constant, the gravitational constant, the elementary charge, and many others are comprised of these three fundamental units. Physics equations are functions in which maximum potentials defined by the Planck units are reduced by one or more proportionality operators, producing observed quantities of natural phenomena. Natural symmetries constrain the relationships between length, mass, and time, yielding the physical dynamics of momentum, action, force, and energy. The Planck units quantify mechanical, gravitational, and electromagnetic properties of the universe and offer a common language for interpreting the standard model interactions. Units associated with the electromagnetic interaction are translated into units of length, mass, and time, including the coulomb, ampere, volt, tesla, henry, weber, farad, ohm, and siemen.


Planck units, natural units, fundamental constants, physical constants, Planck's constant, gravitational constant, particle mechanics


Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

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