Preprint Article Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Complexity of Number Theory

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2020 / Approved: 25 February 2020 / Online: 25 February 2020 (12:21:49 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 27 February 2020 / Approved: 27 February 2020 / Online: 27 February 2020 (10:49:49 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 10 March 2020 / Approved: 11 March 2020 / Online: 11 March 2020 (16:04:28 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 31 March 2020 / Approved: 2 April 2020 / Online: 2 April 2020 (18:25:32 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 20 April 2020 / Approved: 22 April 2020 / Online: 22 April 2020 (09:48:30 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 3 June 2020 / Approved: 4 June 2020 / Online: 4 June 2020 (13:22:40 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 6 June 2020 / Approved: 8 June 2020 / Online: 8 June 2020 (10:31:19 CEST)

How to cite: Vega, F. The Complexity of Number Theory. Preprints 2020, 2020020379 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0379.v3). Vega, F. The Complexity of Number Theory. Preprints 2020, 2020020379 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0379.v3).

Abstract

The Goldbach's conjecture has been described as the most difficult problem in the history of Mathematics. This conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes. This is known as the strong Goldbach's conjecture. The conjecture that all odd numbers greater than 7 are the sum of three odd primes is known today as the weak Goldbach conjecture. A principal complexity class is NSPACE(S(n)) for some S(n). We show if the weak Goldbach's conjecture is true, then the problem PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n). This proof is based on the assumption that if some language belongs to NSPACE(S(n)), then the unary version of that language belongs to NSPACE(S(log n)) and vice versa. However, if PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n), then the strong Goldbach's conjecture is true or this has an infinite number of counterexamples. Since Harald Helfgott proved that the weak Goldbach's conjecture is true, then the strong Goldbach's conjecture is true or this has an infinite number of counterexamples, where the case of infinite number of counterexamples statistically seems to be unlikely. In addition, if PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n), then the Twin prime conjecture is true. Moreover, if PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n), then the Beal's conjecture is true. Since the Beal's conjecture is a generalization of Fermat's Last Theorem, then this is also a simple and short proof for that Theorem. In mathematics, the Riemann hypothesis is consider to be the most important unsolved problem in pure mathematics. If PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n), then the Riemann hypothesis is true.

Subject Areas

complexity classes; regular languages; reduction; number theory; conjecture; primes

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 11 March 2020
Commenter: Frank Vega
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: This is a new version: the abstract, keywords and content file pdf were changed. The Riemann hypothesis was finally proved in this new version.
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