Preprint Short Note Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Complexity of Number Theory

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2020 / Approved: 25 February 2020 / Online: 25 February 2020 (12:21:49 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 27 February 2020 / Approved: 27 February 2020 / Online: 27 February 2020 (10:49:49 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 10 March 2020 / Approved: 11 March 2020 / Online: 11 March 2020 (16:04:28 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 31 March 2020 / Approved: 2 April 2020 / Online: 2 April 2020 (18:25:32 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 20 April 2020 / Approved: 22 April 2020 / Online: 22 April 2020 (09:48:30 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 3 June 2020 / Approved: 4 June 2020 / Online: 4 June 2020 (13:22:40 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 6 June 2020 / Approved: 8 June 2020 / Online: 8 June 2020 (10:31:19 CEST)

How to cite: Vega, F. The Complexity of Number Theory. Preprints 2020, 2020020379 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0379.v1). Vega, F. The Complexity of Number Theory. Preprints 2020, 2020020379 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0379.v1).

Abstract

The Goldbach's conjecture has been described as the most difficult problem in the history of Mathematics. This conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes. This is known as the strong Goldbach's conjecture. The conjecture that all odd numbers greater than 7 are the sum of three odd primes is known today as the weak Goldbach conjecture. A major complexity class is NSPACE(S(n)) for some S(n). We show if the weak Goldbach's conjecture is true, then the problem PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n). However, if PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n), then the strong Goldbach's conjecture is true or this has an infinite number of counterexamples. Since Harald Helfgott proved that the weak Goldbach's conjecture is true, then the strong Goldbach's conjecture is true or this has an infinite number of counterexamples, where the case of infinite number of counterexamples statistically seems to be unlikely. In addition, if PRIMES is not in NSPACE(S(n)) for all S(n) = o(log n), then the Beal's conjecture is true. Since the Beal's conjecture is a generalization of Fermat's Last Theorem, then this is also a simple and short proof for that Theorem.

Subject Areas

complexity classes; regular languages; number theory; conjecture; primes

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