Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Comparing Milk Microbial Quality and Hygiene between Milk Processed at Home and Milk Processed by Industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda

Version 1 : Received: 4 November 2019 / Approved: 6 November 2019 / Online: 6 November 2019 (11:35:43 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 8 November 2019 / Approved: 13 November 2019 / Online: 13 November 2019 (10:37:25 CET)

How to cite: Ugochukwu, O.G.; Niyibizi, J.B. Comparing Milk Microbial Quality and Hygiene between Milk Processed at Home and Milk Processed by Industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda. Preprints 2019, 2019110063 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0063.v1). Ugochukwu, O.G.; Niyibizi, J.B. Comparing Milk Microbial Quality and Hygiene between Milk Processed at Home and Milk Processed by Industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda. Preprints 2019, 2019110063 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0063.v1).

Abstract

Pasteurized milks are still causing food borne illness. Milk contamination can occur at any stage from its way from cow to our tables. Usually milk is pure and sterile when produced in udder of a healthy cow. Like humans, cow are reservoirs of bacteria which are harmless to humans and some cows can harbour few bacteria that are harmful to humans even though they are not harmful to the cow. Milk can be contaminated during or after milking. Also, cow feeds can be contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins produced by the fungi, Aspergillus flavus. Four types of aflatoxins are known which are; aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2. Cows comsuming feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 leads to secretion in the milk of aflatoxin M1 and M2 causing aflatoxicosis. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products is a universal problem and foodborne infections accounting for 20 million cases annually in the world have been identified as an important public health and economic problem in developed as well as developing nations. The main objective of this study is to determine milk microbial quality in Kicukiro district. The specific objectives are to identify bacteria pathogens in milk collected in Kicukiro district, to compare milk quality among sectors of Kicukiro district, to compare milk processed by industries and home-processed milk. The methodology employed in this research was cross-sectional and experimental as the study began with collection of raw data and went through laboratory analysis from July – August, 2018. The expected results from this study will be beneficial to four groups; one is to me as this research will help me to put into practice what I have been learning throughout my years in the school and help me acquire the basic knowledge practically in the laboratory, two is to the masses as this research when published, will help people know where to buy quality and healthy milk products, three is to the government as this research with aid the government to monitor milk processors and promulgate a law that will seek to restrict person who process commercial milk in unhygienic environment, four is to the researchers as this research will serve as basis and background knowledge in their subsequent researches. The findings showed that 59.56% of the milk fell within Grade I – Grade III (< 200,000 ≤ 2,000,000 cfu/ml) and 40.42 % of the milk samples were not within the acceptable limit of total count quality as per COMESA and EAS, non-lactobacilli and fungi were present in most samples as examined through microscope and no Staphylococcus aureus was present in any sample as examined by catalase and coagulase tests.

Subject Areas

contamination; pathogens; bacteria; escherichia coli; staphylococcus aureus; hygiene; shigella; salmonella; milk processing; foodborne infection; cfu

Comments (13)

Comment 1
Received: 7 November 2019
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: What could be more pressing than a study on food products that many people use daily? Interest in milk products run from the favorites of youths – chocolates, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt - to the delicacy of adults – butter, biscuits, custard, condensed, and dried milk. It indeed runs across the age board. It is appropriate that such a widely consumed product receives the attention of public policies that not only promote their consumption but preserve their safe usage. Such a need gives credence to the relevance of Ugochukwu and Niyibizi’s work in comparing the microbial quality and hygiene between milk processed at home and milk processed by industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda. From their findings, any interested party will make a better-informed decision when consuming or marketing milk products.
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Response 1 to Comment 1
Received: 9 November 2019
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you. It's indeed worrisome that many do not care about what they eat. Milk especially, has high nutritional content which made it habitable for almost all microorganisms. My concern is that most of these microorganisms can be harmful to humans, even the harmless ones become harmful to those with impaired immune systems or immunocompromised individuals.
Comment 2
Received: 8 November 2019
Commenter: Eric NGABO
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: This article is great and one of it's kind in Rwanda
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Response 1 to Comment 2
Received: 5 September 2020
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you for your comment Eric
Comment 3
Received: 12 November 2019
Commenter: Onunkwo Jude C
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: This is an interesting topic and a relevant one. Thanks to the authors.
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Response 1 to Comment 3
Received: 14 November 2019
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you for your comment. It's indeed relevant because what we eat matters a lot.
Comment 4
Received: 16 November 2019
Commenter: Francis Udoji
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: This is a nice scholarly work. Knowledge is indeed power, but knowledge of what we eat and what goes into our mouth is health too. Thanks so much to the author
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Response 1 to Comment 4
Received: 18 November 2019
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you for your comment, eating healthy helps us to stay healthy hence the reason for the research.
Comment 5
Received: 17 November 2019
Commenter: Ifiorah cyril ụzọnna
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: A1 and A2 are botulinum toxins which are among the toxins produced by clostridium botulinum.

clostridium botulinum is a bacteria

Aspergillus flavus is fungi which produces aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2. *

This research have succeeded in my own analysis in solving one huge problem by bringing to bare an aspect of principles for quality dieting and living. Great it comes at a moment of little care over human health and unprecedented ill heath all over. Thanks for focusing on the commonest and most general of feeds, dairy feeds.
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Response 1 to Comment 5
Received: 18 November 2019
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thanks for your comment. Eating quality foods gives quality life and eating safely gives safer life.
Response 2 to Comment 5
Received: 18 November 2019
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: The toxins talked about in the research are those of Aspergillus flavus(aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2).

A1 and A2 are botulinum toxins produced by the bacterium called clostridium botulinum and were not discussed in this research. Thank you
Comment 6
Received: 18 November 2019
Commenter: Anyika Justin
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: This topic has just served as an eye opener to me. Before now i never for once cared about the production state of of the Miller consume daily...
But just as important as a child first feed comes from milk from the mother, the consumption of milk , its uses as by-product and as food supplement has become indispensable, and as something we cannot go without it is of great importance to pay attention and look into our milk production processes because it contributes much to our hygiene, just as we examinar our water before drinking, so as it is of great importance to examine the milking processes .
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Response 1 to Comment 6
Received: 19 November 2019
Commenter: Onuike Godwin Ugochukwu
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you Justin for your comment. Knowledge is indeed power.

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