Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Comparing Milk Microbial Quality and Hygiene between Milk Processed at Home and Milk Processed by Industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda

Version 1 : Received: 4 November 2019 / Approved: 6 November 2019 / Online: 6 November 2019 (11:35:43 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 8 November 2019 / Approved: 13 November 2019 / Online: 13 November 2019 (10:37:25 CET)

How to cite: Ugochukwu, O.G.; Niyibizi, J.B. Comparing Milk Microbial Quality and Hygiene between Milk Processed at Home and Milk Processed by Industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda. Preprints 2019, 2019110063 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0063.v2). Ugochukwu, O.G.; Niyibizi, J.B. Comparing Milk Microbial Quality and Hygiene between Milk Processed at Home and Milk Processed by Industries in Kicukiro District, Kigali City-Rwanda. Preprints 2019, 2019110063 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0063.v2).

Abstract

Pasteurized milks are still causing food borne illness. Milk contamination can occur at any stage from its way from cow to our tables. Usually milk is pure and sterile when produced in udder of a healthy cow. Like humans, cow are reservoirs of bacteria which are harmless to humans and some cows can harbour few bacteria that are harmful to humans even though they are not harmful to the cow. Milk can be contaminated during or after milking. Also, cow feeds can be contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins produced by the fungi, Aspergillus flavus. Four types of aflatoxins are known which are; aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2. Cows comsuming feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 leads to secretion in the milk of aflatoxin M1 and M2 causing aflatoxicosis. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products is a universal problem and foodborne infections accounting for 20 million cases annually in the world have been identified as an important public health and economic problem in developed as well as developing nations. The main objective of this study was to determine milk microbial quality in Kicukiro district. The specific objectives are to identify bacteria pathogens in milk collected in Kicukiro district, to compare milk quality among sectors of Kicukiro district, to compare milk processed by industries and home-processed milk. The methodology employed in this research was cross-sectional and experimental as the study began with collection of raw data and went through laboratory analysis from July–August, 2018. The findings showed that 59.56% of the milk fell within Grade I – Grade III (< 200,000 ≤ 2,000,000 cfu/ml) and 40.42 % of the milk samples were not within the acceptable limit of total count quality as per COMESA and EAS, non-lactobacilli and fungi were present in most samples as examined through microscope and no Staphylococcus aureus was present in any sample as examined by catalase and coagulase tests.

Subject Areas

contamination; pathogens; bacteria; escherichia coli; staphylococcus aureus; hygiene; shigella; salmonella; milk processing; foodborne infection; cfu

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 13 November 2019
Commenter: Jean Baptiste Niyibizi
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Abstract, discussion, citations and declarations
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 1
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.