Version 1
: Received: 3 November 2019 / Approved: 4 November 2019 / Online: 4 November 2019 (03:21:34 CET)
Version 2
: Received: 14 July 2020 / Approved: 15 July 2020 / Online: 15 July 2020 (03:30:06 CEST)

How to cite:
Ishiguri, S. Theory on Another Type of Temperature-Independent Superconductivity Based on Circuit Approaches with High Critical Current Density. Preprints2019, 2019110033 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v2).
Ishiguri, S. Theory on Another Type of Temperature-Independent Superconductivity Based on Circuit Approaches with High Critical Current Density. Preprints 2019, 2019110033 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v2).

Cite as:

Ishiguri, S. Theory on Another Type of Temperature-Independent Superconductivity Based on Circuit Approaches with High Critical Current Density. Preprints2019, 2019110033 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v2).
Ishiguri, S. Theory on Another Type of Temperature-Independent Superconductivity Based on Circuit Approaches with High Critical Current Density. Preprints 2019, 2019110033 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v2).

Abstract

This paper proposes a method to generate a new type of superconductivity that is temperature independent with a high critical current density. This study is significant because the method does not require refrigeration, specific setups, or specific substances. That is, the method for generating the superconductivity is very simple. Many conventional superconductor studies have not yet reached this point. Moreover, compared with our previously developed superconductivity (PNS) [1-3], the critical currents in this study are much larger, which is important for practical applications. In the theoretical approaches, even though the mechanism of pairing, and the Bose–Einstein condensation are the same in this study as in PNS, the present paper emphasizes the mechanism of the Meissner effect in addition to formulating the critical current density. Further, we establish a simulation method with an equivalent circuit that reveals the superconductivity properties in terms of the transport current and the electromagnetic characteristics.The principles of the presented system are as follows:First a voltage source, a current source and a load are connected in series.Then, the voltage of the voltage source is adjusted to balance the voltage of the load.Under this condition, the balance of the two voltages provides a zero voltage between the taps of the current source and the generated current from the voltage source becomes zero because of the internal infinite resistance of the current source.As a result, the electric power generated by the two sources is zero, and therefore, the load cannot generate Joule heating because of energy conservation.However, the current from the current source (not the voltage source) is not zero; therefore, we can predict that the resistance of the load must be zero.A summary of our theory and numerical calculations is as follows. First, the strong combination of a two-electron pair is demonstrated. Then, given that two electrons combine extremely strongly because of the spin magnetic attractive force, analytical calculations of the center-of-mass motion of the Hamiltonian of the pair eventually result in a macroscopic wave function. From this macroscopic wave function, we derive a London equation using the concept of an internal toroid. The key point is that, when a sample exhibits a Meissner effect, it should release the additional energy from the internal magnetic field as a discharge current, which involves a negative voltage. Based on the inductance of this toroid, an equivalent circuit is produced. Using this circuit, we simulate this phenomenon, which results in the generation of a negative voltage and evidence of the Meissner effect, in addition to zero voltages and non-zero currents for the sample.

Subject Areas

temperature-independent superconductivity; circuit-approached superconductivity; electron pair; Bose–Einstein condensation; large superconducting energy gap; London equation; Meissner effect; macroscopic wave function; critical current density; negative voltages

Copyright:
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received:
15 July 2020
Commenter:
S. Ishiguri
Commenter's Conflict of Interests:
Author

Comment: In this second version, the equivalent circuit in Fig. 4 was modified. That is, a very small inductance L_{0} (0.1 mH) by the direct connection for “R1” was added. The reason to employ this small inductance L_{0} is that it is necessary to express a general flux and self-magnetic field in the substance as well as its resistance. As a result, a negative voltage the probe V4 detects in Fig. 4 appears more sharply than that of the first version (see V4 graphs in Result section). This negative voltage is important because it implies the Meissner effect that the additional internal magnetic field is converted to a discharge current, as described in both the first and second versions. Thus, the reasoning and physical pictures have taken more clear and thus the first version has been greatly improved, although the basic conclusion remains.

Commenter: S. Ishiguri

Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author

_{0}(0.1 mH) by the direct connection for “R1” was added. The reason to employ this small inductance L_{0}is that it is necessary to express a general flux and self-magnetic field in the substance as well as its resistance. As a result, a negative voltage the probe V4 detects in Fig. 4 appears more sharply than that of the first version (see V4 graphs in Result section). This negative voltage is important because it implies the Meissner effect that the additional internal magnetic field is converted to a discharge current, as described in both the first and second versions. Thus, the reasoning and physical pictures have taken more clear and thus the first version has been greatly improved, although the basic conclusion remains.