Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Macrodebris and Microplastics Pollution in Nigeria: First Report on Abundance, Distribution and Composition

Version 1 : Received: 21 August 2019 / Approved: 25 August 2019 / Online: 25 August 2019 (16:42:58 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Enyoh Christian Ebere, Verla Andrew Wirnkor, Verla Evelyn Ngozi, Ihenetu Stanley Chukwuemeka. Macrodebris and microplastics pollution in Nigeria: first report on abundance, distribution and composition. Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2019;34(4):e2019012-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.e2019012 Enyoh Christian Ebere, Verla Andrew Wirnkor, Verla Evelyn Ngozi, Ihenetu Stanley Chukwuemeka. Macrodebris and microplastics pollution in Nigeria: first report on abundance, distribution and composition. Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2019;34(4):e2019012-0. doi: https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.e2019012

Journal reference: Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology 2019, 34, e2019012-0
DOI: 10.5620/eaht.e2019012

Abstract

The abundance, distribution and composition of marine debris (> 5 cm) and small microplastics (11 μm) from five rivers in South Eastern, Nigeria was investigated. This study provided the first assessment of the type and quantity of marine litter and microplastics in Nigeria. A total of 3487 macrodebris items/m2 were counted with the following distribution; plastics (59 %) > metal (10 %) > cloth (7 %), paper /cardboard (7 %), rubber (7 %) > glass/ceramics (5 %), medical and agro-based waste (3 %) > wood (2 %). The cleanliness of the river assessed with clean coast index (CCI) ranged from “very clean” at Okumpi and Obiaraedu river to “extremely dirty” at Nwangele river. Microplastics abundance ranged from 440 to 1556 particles/L, with high accumulation at downstream. Fragment shape was most abundant while fiber and film followed. The distribution of plastic types was; PET (29 %) > PE (22 %) > PVC (16 %) > PP (14 %) > other (6 %) respectively. Significant relationship was found between the total abundances of microplastics and different macrodebris groups suggesting that microplastics were abundant in areas where the macrodebris abundance was high. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention including proper waste management, recycling of plastics, and strict penalties for illegal dumping of wastes.

Subject Areas

anthropogenic activities; coastal pollution; marine litter; Nigeria environment; plastics

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