Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Origin of the Most Energetic Galactic Cosmic Rays: Supernova Explosions into Massive Star Plasma Winds

Version 1 : Received: 7 November 2018 / Approved: 8 November 2018 / Online: 8 November 2018 (09:53:33 CET)

How to cite: Biermann, P.; Kronberg, P.; Allen, M.; Meli, A.; Seo, E. The Origin of the Most Energetic Galactic Cosmic Rays: Supernova Explosions into Massive Star Plasma Winds. Preprints 2018, 2018110195 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201811.0195.v1). Biermann, P.; Kronberg, P.; Allen, M.; Meli, A.; Seo, E. The Origin of the Most Energetic Galactic Cosmic Rays: Supernova Explosions into Massive Star Plasma Winds. Preprints 2018, 2018110195 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201811.0195.v1).

Abstract

We propose that the high energy Cosmic Ray particles around the spectral turn-down commonly called the {\it knee} and up to the upturn, commonly called the {\it ankle}, mostly come from Blue Super Giant star explosions. At the upturn, i.e. the {\it ankle}, Cosmic Rays probably switch to another source class, most likely extragalactic sources. To show this we recently compiled a set of Radio Supernova data to list the magnetic field, shock speed and radius scale (Biermann et al. 2018) \cite{Biermann18}. Using particle acceleration theory at shocks, those numbers can be transformed into characteristic {\it knee} and {\it ankle} energies. Without adjusting any free parameters both of these observed energies are directly indicated by the supernova data. We now proceed to the next step in the argument, and use the Supernova Remnant data of the starburst galaxy M82. Assuming that they are Blue Supergiant star explosions, the shock will race to their outer edge with a magnetic field that follows ${B (r) \, r \, \sim \, const.}$. We argue that the shock runs through the entire magnetic plasma wind region at full speed all the way out to the wind-shell, which is of order parsec scale. The speed is observed to be $\sim \, 0.1 \, c$ at about ${10^{16} \, {\rm cm}}$ radius in the plasma wind. This demonstrates how Blue Supergiant star explosions can provide the Cosmic Ray particles across the {\it knee} and up to the {\it ankle} energy range. The data from the CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass Experiment) mission will test this cosmic ray concept which is reasonably well grounded in two independent radio supernova data sets. The next step in developing our understanding is to obtain accurate Cosmic Ray data near to the {\it knee}, and use unstable isotopes of Cosmic Ray nuclei at high energy to probe the "piston" driving the explosion. We plan to combine these data with the physics of the budding black hole which is probably forming in each of these stars to learn more.

Subject Areas

Cosmic Rays; Massive Star Supernovae; Cosmic Ray Knee and Ankle.

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