Kroeker, A.L.; Smid, V.; Embury-Hyatt, C.; Moffat, E.; Collignon, B.; Lung, O.; Lindsay, R.; Weingartl, H. RVFV Infection in Goats by Different Routes of Inoculation. Viruses2018, 10, 709.
Kroeker, A.L.; Smid, V.; Embury-Hyatt, C.; Moffat, E.; Collignon, B.; Lung, O.; Lindsay, R.; Weingartl, H. RVFV Infection in Goats by Different Routes of Inoculation. Viruses 2018, 10, 709.
Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus of the Phenuiviridae family. Infection causes abortions in pregnant animals, high mortality in neonate animals and mild to severe symptoms in both people and animals. There is currently an ongoing effort to produce safe and efficacious veterinary vaccines against RVFV in livestock to protect against both primary infection in animals and zoonotic infections in people. To test the efficacy of these vaccines it is essential to have a reliable challenge model in relevant target species, including ruminants. We evaluated two goats breeds (Nubian and LaMancha), three routes of inoculation (intranasal, mosquito-primed subcutaneous and subcutaneous) using an infectious dose of 107 pfu/ml, a virus strain from the 2006-07 Kenyan/Sudan outbreak and compared the effect of using virus stocks produced in either mammalian or mosquito cells. Our results demonstrated that Nubian goats achieved the highest levels and longer duration of viremia. In the Nubian goats, all three routes of inoculation were equally efficient at producing clinical signs, consistent viremia (peak viremia: 1.2x103 - 1.0x105 pfu/ml serum), nasal and oral shedding of viral RNA (1.5x101 – 8x106 genome copies/swab), a systemic infection of tissues, and robust antibody responses. The Nubian goat breed and a needle-free intranasal inoculation technique could both be utilized in future vaccine and challenge studies.
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