Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Acrylamide Formation Potential of Organically and Conventionally Grown Cereals

Version 1 : Received: 23 October 2018 / Approved: 23 October 2018 / Online: 23 October 2018 (16:19:26 CEST)

How to cite: Stockmann, F.; Weber, E.A.; Mast, B.; Schreiter, P.; Merkt, N.; Claupein, W.; Graeff-Hönninger, S. Acrylamide Formation Potential of Organically and Conventionally Grown Cereals. Preprints 2018, 2018100544 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201810.0544.v1). Stockmann, F.; Weber, E.A.; Mast, B.; Schreiter, P.; Merkt, N.; Claupein, W.; Graeff-Hönninger, S. Acrylamide Formation Potential of Organically and Conventionally Grown Cereals. Preprints 2018, 2018100544 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201810.0544.v1).

Abstract

As bakery products contribute considerably to the daily intake of the carcinogen acting substance acrylamide (AA), the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the cropping system (conventional vs. organic farming) on AA precursor levels of free asparagine (Asn) across different cultivars of the cereal species, namely winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and winter rye (Secale cereale) with simultaneous consideration of gained grain yields and flour qualities. For this purpose, orthogonal field trials were established at two sites in Southwest Germany over two growing seasons (2006-2007 and 2007-2008). The results indicated a significant impact of the cropping system on free Asn contents. Across all species, free Asn contents in the flour were 26 % lower under organic compared to conventional farming. The impact of the cropping system on individual cultivars was obvious with a maximum reduction in free Asn contents of 50 % (e.g. for cultivars Ludwig, Privileg, Capo) if organically produced. For spelt, a significant impact of the cropping system was only found in 2008 with a reduction in free Asn of up to 25 % if organically produced. Across both cropping systems, cultivar Franckenkorn reached the lowest levels of free Asn. For rye, a significant impact of the cropping system was observed only in 2007 with 33 % higher Asn amounts in the conventional cropping system. Independent of the cropping system, rye reached the highest levels of free Asn followed by wheat and spelt. Across both cropping systems, species and cultivars, the amount of free Asn correlated with the AA content in heated flour with R2=0.63***. Furthermore, the results indicated that lower AA contents in bakery products can be achieved by proper selection of species (e.g. 66 % lower if rye is replaced by wheat) and cultivars. With an appropriate choice of the cultivar, a reduction of up to 65 % was possible within wheat, along with a reduction of 44 % within spelt and 12.5 % within rye. In summary, the results indicated that organically produced wheat especially offers the opportunity to significantly lower the AA potential of bread and bread rolls by the choice of raw materials low in free Asn.

Subject Areas

Acrylamide, Free Asparagine, Cropping Systems, Organic, Conventional, Agriculture, Cereals, Species, Cultivars

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