Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Surface Functionalisation of Upconversion Nanoparticles with Different Moieties for Biomedical Applications

Version 1 : Received: 14 October 2018 / Approved: 15 October 2018 / Online: 15 October 2018 (12:59:30 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Gee, A.; Xu, X. Surface Functionalisation of Upconversion Nanoparticles with Different Moieties for Biomedical Applications. Surfaces 2018, 1, 96-121. Gee, A.; Xu, X. Surface Functionalisation of Upconversion Nanoparticles with Different Moieties for Biomedical Applications. Surfaces 2018, 1, 96-121.

Journal reference: Surfaces 2018, 1, 9
DOI: 10.3390/surfaces1010009

Abstract

Lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can convert low-energy infrared photons into high-energy visible and ultraviolet photons, are becoming highly sought-after for advanced biomedical and biophotonics applications. Their unique luminescent properties enable UCNPs to be applied for diagnosis, including biolabeling, biosensing, bioimaging and multiple imaging modality, as well as therapeutic treatments including photothermal and photodynamic therapy, bio-reductive chemotherapy and drug delivery. For the employment of the inorganic nanomaterials into biological environment, it is critical to bridge the gap in between nanoparticles and biomolecules via surface modifications and subsequent functionalisation. This work reviews the various ways to surface modify and functionalise UCNPs so as to impart different functional molecular groups to the UCNPs surfaces for a board range of applications in biomedical areas. We discussed commonly used base functionalities, including –COOH, -NH2 and –SH, that are typically imparted to UCNP surfaces so as to provide further functional capacity.

Subject Areas

upconversion; nanoparticles; lanthanide; surface modification; functionalisation; ligand engineering; silanisation;

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