Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Multi-Stage Approach to Hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor System for Transport Vehicles

Version 1 : Received: 6 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (08:33:53 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 24 October 2018 / Approved: 25 October 2018 / Online: 25 October 2018 (09:40:30 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lencwe, M.J.; Chowdhury, S.P.; Olwal, T.O. A Multi-Stage Approach to a Hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor System for Transport Vehicles. Energies 2018, 11, 2888. Lencwe, M.J.; Chowdhury, S.P.; Olwal, T.O. A Multi-Stage Approach to a Hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor System for Transport Vehicles. Energies 2018, 11, 2888.

Journal reference: Energies 2018, 11, 2888
DOI: 10.3390/en11112888

Abstract

Lead Acid Batteries (LABs) are used for starting, lighting, igniting, air conditioning systems and supplying power to electric engines in Transport Vehicles (TVs). However, the application of LABs for TVs has faced a number of market challenges mounted by the upcoming high energy density and long lifespan batteries such as Lithium Ion. LABs on the other hand are low cost. The key research question is, how can the lifespan of LABs used in automotive industries be increased, while still ensuring a low cost solution? Thus, integrating LABs with the Supercapacitor is likely to outperform the competing alternative batteries for TVs. This paper proposes a multiple stage approach to hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor system for TVs that is capable of maintaining the battery State-of-Charge (SOC) to statistically high limits ranging between 90% and 95%. This SOC target will likely ensure that the lifespan of the hybrid battery system can be elongated (extended) more than its competitors. In this study, the multiple stage approach of concatenated converters has been designed in order to satisfy all energy storage requirements for different characteristics of LAB and Supercapacitor. The designed hybrid system has been simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulated results show that high transient currents from the DC Bus of LAB caused by the regenerative braking or deceleration of the TVs reduces the battery lifespan and induce mechanical stress. Supercapacitor reduces the stress on the LAB by absorbing high transient currents. This, in turn keeps the LABs’ SOC between 90-95% and the voltage at 12V. As indicated by the simulated results, the hybrid battery SOC is maintained at 90-93% and the terminal voltage is approximately 12V.

Subject Areas

lead acid battery; supercapacitor; DC/DC converter; state-of-charge

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