Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Animal Models for Panic Disorder

Version 1 : Received: 27 August 2018 / Approved: 29 August 2018 / Online: 29 August 2018 (11:13:12 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 20 April 2019 / Approved: 22 April 2019 / Online: 22 April 2019 (11:50:13 CEST)

How to cite: Rocha, S.P.; do Carmo Silva, R.X.; Herculano, A.M.; Maximino, M.L.; Maximino, C. Animal Models for Panic Disorder. Preprints 2018, 2018080494 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0494.v1). Rocha, S.P.; do Carmo Silva, R.X.; Herculano, A.M.; Maximino, M.L.; Maximino, C. Animal Models for Panic Disorder. Preprints 2018, 2018080494 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0494.v1).

Abstract

Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks associated with behavioral changes and/or persistent anxiety due to the attacks. The development of behavioral models in animals is important for the understanding of the psychobiological and behavioral bases of PD. The present article reviews the main models used in the current literature. The elevated T-maze, used in rats, presents good predictive validity, but its face validity has been questioned. Models using electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray present good face validity, but lesser construct validity. Models relying on predator exposure present good predictive and construct validity. These three approaches seek coherence with theories on PD as a way to increase its translational potential; thus, while the elevated T-maze is supported by the Deakin/Graeff theory, the mouse defense test battery relies on the concept of defensive distance, and periaqueductal gray stimulation is based on the functional neuroanatomy of PD. Moreover, to higher or lower degree the three models are supported by an “etho-experimental” approach, with careful observation of animal behavior as a way of discriminating different defensive strategies that model different aspects of anxiety, fear, and panic. Finally, an alternative/complementary model is proposed that uses zebrafish alarm reaction to study this disorder.

Subject Areas

Panic disorder; Animal experimentation; Defensive behavior (Animal); Escape behavior (Animal)

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