Aflatoxins, which have been classified as a group-1 carcinogen are the well-known mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxins have been linked to liver diseases, acute hepatic necrosis, resulting in cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinomas due to which it incurs a loss of value in international trade for peanuts contaminated with it. The four main aflatoxins are B1, B2, G1, and G2 of which B1 is predominant. In plants, the cell wall is the primary barrier against pathogen invasion. Cell wall fortifications such as deposition of callose, cellulose, lignin, phenolic compounds and structural proteins help to prevent the pathogen infection. Further, the host cell’s ability to rapidly repair and reinforce its cell walls will result in a reduction of the penetration efficiency of the pathogen. Peanut seed coat acts as a physical and biochemical cell wall barrier against both pre and post-harvest pathogen infection. The structure of seed coat and the presence of polyphenol compounds have been reported to inhibit the growth of A. flavus, however, not successfully employed to develop A. flavus resistance in peanut. A comprehensive understanding of peanut seed coat development and biochemistry will provide information to design efficient strategies for the seed coat mediated A. flavus resistance and Aflatoxin contamination.
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