Working Paper Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Massive Photons Propagation in Gravitational Field

Version 1 : Received: 13 August 2018 / Approved: 13 August 2018 / Online: 13 August 2018 (17:09:18 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 11 October 2019 / Approved: 12 October 2019 / Online: 12 October 2019 (04:16:45 CEST)

How to cite: Arbab, A. Massive Photons Propagation in Gravitational Field. Preprints 2018, 2018080236 Arbab, A. Massive Photons Propagation in Gravitational Field. Preprints 2018, 2018080236


A single photon inside a gravitational field defined by the accelerates $g$ is found to have a gravitational mass given by $m_g=(\hbar/2c^3)g$, where $\hbar$ is the reduced Planck's constant, and $c$ is the speed of light in vacuum. This force is equivalent to the curvature force introduced by Einstein's general relativity. These photons behave like the radiation emitted by a black hole. A black hole emitting such a radiation develops an entropy that is found to increase linearly with black hole mass, and inversely with the photon mass. Based on this, the entropy of a solar black hole emitting photons of mass $\sim 10^{-33}eV$ amounts to $\sim 10^{77}\,k_B$. The created photons could be seen as resulting from quantum fluctuation during an uncertainty time given by $\Delta t=c/g$. The gravitational force on the photon is that of an entropic nature, and varies inversely with the square of the entropy. The power of the massive photon radiation is found to be analogous to Larmor power of an accelerating charge.


black holes thermodynamics; entropic force; electromagnetic-gravity analogy; General Relativity; massive electrodynamics


Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 12 October 2019
Commenter: Arbab Arbab
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: The title of the manuscript is changed to exactly fit its contents.
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