Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

On Predicting Animal Evolution

Version 1 : Received: 22 June 2018 / Approved: 22 June 2018 / Online: 22 June 2018 (13:45:04 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 8 July 2018 / Approved: 9 July 2018 / Online: 9 July 2018 (14:52:02 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 8 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (16:15:55 CEST)

How to cite: Norman, S. On Predicting Animal Evolution. Preprints 2018, 2018060356. Norman, S. On Predicting Animal Evolution. Preprints 2018, 2018060356.


The origination of most free-living animal species is predictable. ‘Light’ order in the producer trophic levels below is the key. Absent from the abiotic environment (pre-biotic level) and prokaryotes, ‘light’ order consists of differences in species composition between developed species-packed communities in which extinction may be the precursor of speciation, particularly ecologically comparable tropical lowland ones of Africa, Australia, India, and South America. Based on but not itself of matter and non-burnable, nil waste heat content ‘compensates’ for burned-up food energy. Where the amounts on pre-apical levels form an inverted pyramid like waste heat’s, occupancy of consumer levels from primary to apical is predictable (variation and selection assumed). Terminal non-inversion predicts post-apical vacancy. Examined communities were from grasslands (large carnivores, large grazing mammals, grasses) and woodlands (raptorial birds, insect-eating birds, butterflies, woody plants). Comparisons with Darwin’s and Lyell’s non-predictive theories of change are made. Implication for Gladyshevian thermodynamics v. Prigoginean dynamics is discussed. Linnaeus’s classificational system turns out to be rich with new and unsuspected content.


extinction; ‘light’ order; Linnaean system; thermodynamics; trophic levels; tropical lowland communities


Biology and Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science and Zoology

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