Preprint Article Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Charged Dark Matters and Extended Standard Model

Version 1 : Received: 13 June 2018 / Approved: 14 June 2018 / Online: 14 June 2018 (08:44:11 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 4 July 2018 / Approved: 5 July 2018 / Online: 5 July 2018 (08:03:40 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 19 July 2018 / Approved: 20 July 2018 / Online: 20 July 2018 (05:31:56 CEST)

How to cite: Hwang, J. Charged Dark Matters and Extended Standard Model. Preprints 2018, 2018060225. Hwang, J. Charged Dark Matters and Extended Standard Model. Preprints 2018, 2018060225.


The properties of the charged dark matters are discussed in terms of the new three-dimensional quantized space model. Because of the graviton evaporations, the very small Coulomb’s constant (k(dd)) of 10 −48 k and large gravitation constant (GN(dd)) of 106 GN for the charged dark matters at the present time are expected. The tentative values of G and k are used for the explanation purpose. Therefore, Fc(mm) > Fg(dd) > Fg(mm) > Fg(dm) > Fc(dd) > Fc(dm) = Fc(lq) = 0 for the proton-like particle. Also, the gravitation constant has been changed with increasing of the time because of the graviton evaporation. In the present work, the B1, B2 and B3 bastons with the condition of k(mm) = k >> k(dd) > k(dm) = 0 are explained as the good candidates of the dark matters. Also, the particle creation, dark matters and dark energy could be deeply associated with the changing gravitation constants (G). It is expected that the changing process of the gravitation constant between the matters from GN(mm) ≈ 1036 GN to GN(mm) = GN happened mostly near the inflation period. Therefore, during most of the universe evolution the gravitation constant could be taken as GN(mm) = GN. And the effective charges and effective rest masses of the particles are defined in terms of the fixed Coulomb’s constant (k) and fixed gravitation constant (GN). Then, the effective charge of the B1 dark matter with EC = −2/3 e is (EC)eff = −2/3·10−24 e. It is concluded that the photons, gravitons and dark matters are the first particles created since the big bang. The particles can be created from the decay of the matter universe and the pair production of the particle and anti-particle with decreasing of the gravitation constant (GN(mm)). Also, the weak force, strong force and dark matter force bosons are created from the interactions of the elementary particles with the T fluctuations of the vacuum energy.


charged dark matters; gravitation constant; Coulomb’s constant; dark energy density; universe evolution; extended standard model


Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

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