Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Dark Matters, Gravational Force, Neutron Life-Time Anomaly and Hadronization

Version 1 : Received: 13 May 2018 / Approved: 15 May 2018 / Online: 15 May 2018 (06:16:23 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 22 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (09:14:16 CEST)

How to cite: Hwang, J. Dark Matters, Gravational Force, Neutron Life-Time Anomaly and Hadronization. Preprints 2018, 2018050203 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201805.0203.v2). Hwang, J. Dark Matters, Gravational Force, Neutron Life-Time Anomaly and Hadronization. Preprints 2018, 2018050203 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201805.0203.v2).


The properties of the dark matter, dark energy, graviton and photon are discussed in terms of the new three-dimensional quantized space model. Three new particles (bastons) with the electric charges (EC) are proposed as the dark matters. It is proposed that the EC, LC and CC charges are aligned along the time axes but not along the space axes. The photon is confined on its corresponding three-dimensional quantized space. However, the graviton can be evaporated into other three-dimensional quantized spaces. The rest mass of the electron neutrino (ne) of 3.494·10−3 eV/c2 is obtained from the experimental vacuum energy density in terms of quantum field theory (QFT). The rest mass and force range of the massive g(0,0,0) graviton with the Planck size are mg = 3.1872·10−31 eV/c2 and xr = 3.0955·1023 m = 10.0 Mpc, respectively, based on the experimental rest mass and rms charge radius of the proton. The possible diameter (10 Mpc) of the largest galaxy cluster is remarkably consistent with the gravitational force range (10 Mpc). Then, the diameter of the largest dark matter distribution related to the largest galaxy cluster is 9.2865·1023 m = 30 Mpc equal to the force range of the massive g(0) graviton with the rest mass of 1.0624·10−31 eV/c2. Because of the huge number (N) of the evaporated gravitons, the very small Coulomb’s constant of about 10−48k and large gravitation constant of 106GN are expected for the charged dark matters. Therefore, Fc(mm) > Fg(dd) > Fg(mm) > Fg(dm) > Fc(dd) > Fc(dm) = 0 for the proton-like particle. The proposed weak gravitational force between the dark matters and normal matters explains the observed dark matter distributions of the bullet cluster, Abell 1689 cluster and Abell 520 cluster. The transition from the galaxy without the dark matters to the galaxy with the dark matters are explained. Also, the accelerated space expansion is caused by the new space quanta created by the evaporated gravitons into the x1x2x3 space and repulsive electromagnetic force between dark matters corresponding to the dark energy. The decreasing coupling constant of the strong force, neutron lifetime anomaly and the pressure distribution inside the proton are explained by the unobservable proton and hadronization. And the rest mass of 1.4 TeV/c2 is assigned to the Le particle with the EC charge of −2e. The proposed rest mass (26.12 eV/c2) of the B1 dark matter is indirectly confirmed from the supernova 1987A data. Also, the gravitation constant has been changing with the time because of the graviton evaporation.

Subject Areas

fermionic dark matters; neutron life-time anomaly; massive graviton; hadronization; dark energy; galaxy structure; three-dimensional quantized space model

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.