Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Dark Matters, Gravational Force, Neutron Life-Time Anomaly and Hadronization    

Version 1 : Received: 13 May 2018 / Approved: 15 May 2018 / Online: 15 May 2018 (06:16:23 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 22 June 2018 / Approved: 25 June 2018 / Online: 25 June 2018 (09:14:16 CEST)

How to cite: Hwang, J. Dark Matters, Gravational Force, Neutron Life-Time Anomaly and Hadronization    . Preprints 2018, 2018050203 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201805.0203.v1). Hwang, J. Dark Matters, Gravational Force, Neutron Life-Time Anomaly and Hadronization    . Preprints 2018, 2018050203 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201805.0203.v1).

Abstract

The properties of the dark matters, dark energy, graviton and photon are discussed in terms of the new three-dimensional quantized space model. Three new particles (bastons) with the electric charges (EC) are proposed as the dark matters. The decreasing coupling constant of the strong force and neutron lifetime anomaly are explained by the unobservable proton and hadronization. And the rest mass of 1.4 TeV/c2 is assigned to the Le particle with the EC charge of −2e. The proposed rest mass (26.12 eV/c2) of the B1 dark matter is indirectly confirmed from the supernova 1987A data. It is proposed that the EC, LC and CC charges are aligned along the time axes but not along the space axes. The photon is confined on its corresponding three-dimensional quantized space. However, the graviton can be evaporated into other three-dimensional quantized spaces. The rest mass and force range of the massive g(0,0,0) graviton with the Planck size are mg = 3.1872·10−31 eV/c2 and xr = 3.0955·1023 m = 10.0 Mpc, respectively, based on the experimental rest mass and rms charge radius of the proton. The possible diameter (10 Mpc) of the largest galaxy cluster is remarkably consistent with the gravitational force range (10 Mpc). Then, the diameter of the largest dark matter distribution related to the largest galaxy cluster is 9.2865·1023 m = 30 Mpc equal to the force range of the massive g(0) graviton with the rest mass of 1.0624·10−31 eV/c2. The reason why the gravitational force between normal matters is very weak when compared with other forces is explained by the graviton evaporation and photon confinement. Because of the huge number (N) of the evaporated gravitons into the x1x2x3 space, it is concluded that the gravitational force between dark matters should be much stronger than the gravitational force between the normal matters and the repulsive electromagnetic force between dark matters. The proposed weak gravitational force between the dark matters and normal matters explains the observed dark matter distributions of the bullet cluster, Abell 1689 cluster and Abell 520 cluster. The transition from the galaxy without the dark matters to the galaxy with the dark matters are explained. Also, the accelerated space expansion is caused by the new space quanta created by the evaporated gravitons into the x1x2x3 space and repulsive electromagnetic force between dark matters corresponding to the dark energy. And the space evolution can be described by using these graviton evaporation and repulsive electromagnetic force, too.

Subject Areas

fermionic dark matters; neutron life-time anomaly; massive graviton; hadronization; dark energy; galaxy structure; three-dimensional quantized space model

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