Perez-Maceda, B.T.; López-Fernández, M.E.; Díaz, I.; Kavanaugh, A.; Billi, F.; Escudero, M.L.; García-Alonso, M.C.; Lozano, R.M. Macrophage Biocompatibility of CoCr Wear Particles Produced under Polarization in Hyaluronic Acid Aqueous Solution. Materials2018, 11, 756.
Perez-Maceda, B.T.; López-Fernández, M.E.; Díaz, I.; Kavanaugh, A.; Billi, F.; Escudero, M.L.; García-Alonso, M.C.; Lozano, R.M. Macrophage Biocompatibility of CoCr Wear Particles Produced under Polarization in Hyaluronic Acid Aqueous Solution. Materials 2018, 11, 756.
Macrophages are cells involved in the primary response to debris derived from wear of implanted CoCr alloys. The biocompatibility of wear particles from a high carbon CoCr alloy produced under polarization in physiological hyaluronic acid (HA) solution was evaluated in J774A.1 mouse macrophages cultures. Polarization was applied to mimic the electrical interactions observed in living tissues. Wear tests were performed in a pin-on-disk tribometer integrating an electrochemical cell in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and in PBS supplemented with 0.3% HA, physiological synovial fluid concentration, used as lubricant solution. Wear particles produced in 0.3% HA solution showed a higher biocompatibility in J774A.1 macrophages in comparison to those elicited by PBS. A considerable improvement in macrophages biocompatibility in the presence of 0.3 % of HA was further observed by the application of polarization at potentials having current densities typical of injured tissues suggesting that polarization produces an effect on the surface of the metallic material that leads to the production of wear particles that are macrophages biocompatible and less cytotoxic. The results showed the convenience to consider electric interactions together with other particles parameters, as are size and composition, to get a better understanding of the biological effects of the wear products.
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