Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Geometric Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation

Version 1 : Received: 2 November 2017 / Approved: 3 November 2017 / Online: 3 November 2017 (02:17:11 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 3 November 2019 / Approved: 4 November 2019 / Online: 4 November 2019 (04:04:58 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 8 August 2020 / Approved: 9 August 2020 / Online: 9 August 2020 (22:12:13 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 24 July 2021 / Approved: 26 July 2021 / Online: 26 July 2021 (12:04:41 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 5 December 2021 / Approved: 6 December 2021 / Online: 6 December 2021 (11:52:36 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 4 September 2022 / Approved: 6 September 2022 / Online: 6 September 2022 (04:24:39 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 May 2023 / Approved: 15 May 2023 / Online: 15 May 2023 (14:37:07 CEST)

How to cite: Beach, R.J. Geometric Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation. Preprints 2017, 2017110022. Beach, R.J. Geometric Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation. Preprints 2017, 2017110022.


Using four equations, a recently proposed classical field theory that geometrically couples electromagnetism to gravitation in a fundamentally new way is reviewed. Maxwell’s field equations are a consequence of the new theory as are Einstein’s field equations augmented by a term that can replicate both dark matter and dark energy. To emphasize the unification brought to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena by the new theory specific solutions are investigated: a spherically-symmetric charged particle solution, a cosmological solution representing a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and solutions representing electromagnetic and gravitational waves. A unique feature of the new theory is that both charge and mass density are treated as dynamic fields, this as opposed to their treatment in the classical Maxwell and Einstein field equations where they are introduced as external entities. This feature suggests a procedure for quantizing the mass, charge and angular momentum that characterize particle-like solutions. Finally, antimatter, which is naturally accommodated by the new theory, and its interaction with a gravitational field is investigated.


unified field theory; electromagnetism; Maxwell’s equations; gravitation; General Relativity; Einstein’s field equations; gravitational radiation; hidden variable; dark matter; dark energy


Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.