Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

4SM Method Tested in the Gulf of California Suggests Field Data are Not Needed to Derive Satellite Bathymetry

Version 1 : Received: 18 August 2017 / Approved: 18 August 2017 / Online: 18 August 2017 (12:14:16 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Favoretto, F.; Morel, Y.; Waddington, A.; Lopez-Calderon, J.; Cadena-Roa, M.; Blanco-Jarvio, A. Testing of the 4SM Method in the Gulf of California Suggests Field Data Are not Needed to Derive Satellite Bathymetry. Sensors 2017, 17, 2248. Favoretto, F.; Morel, Y.; Waddington, A.; Lopez-Calderon, J.; Cadena-Roa, M.; Blanco-Jarvio, A. Testing of the 4SM Method in the Gulf of California Suggests Field Data Are not Needed to Derive Satellite Bathymetry. Sensors 2017, 17, 2248.

Journal reference: Sensors 2017, 17, 2248
DOI: 10.3390/s17102248

Abstract

Satellite derived bathymetry methods over coastal areas were born to deliver basic and useful information like bathymetry. However, the process is not straightforward, the main limitation being the need of field data. The Self-calibrated Spectral Supervised Shallow-water Modeler (4SM) method was tested to obtain coastal bathymetry without the use of any field data. Using LANDSAT-8 multispectral images from 2013 to 2016, a bathymetric time series was produced. Groundtruthed depths and an alternative method, Stumpf’s Band Ratio Algorithm, were used to verify the results. Retrieved (4SM) vs groundtruthed depths scored an average r2 (0.90), and a low error (RMSE = 1.47 m). Also 4SM showed, over the whole time series, the same average accuracy of the control method (40%). Advantages, limitations and operability under complex atmosphere and water column conditions, and high and low-albedo bottom processing capabilities of 4SM are discussed. In conclusion, the findings suggest that 4SM is equally accurate as the commonly used Stumpf’s method, the only difference being the independence of 4SM to previous field data, and the potential to deliver bottom spectral characteristics for further modelling. 4SM represents a significative advance in coastal remote sensing potential to obtain bathymetry and optical properties of the marine bottom.

Subject Areas

4SM; satellite derived bathymetry; water depth; water column correction; remote sensing; Landsat; San Lorenzo Channel

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