Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Developing and Validating an Age-Independent Equation of Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing Sarcopenia Cutoff

Version 1 : Received: 17 June 2017 / Approved: 19 June 2017 / Online: 19 June 2017 (11:35:29 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 10 July 2017 / Approved: 10 July 2017 / Online: 10 July 2017 (16:41:30 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 23 August 2017 / Approved: 23 August 2017 / Online: 23 August 2017 (17:57:14 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Yamada, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Kasahara, Y.; Shindo, M.; Miyachi, M.; Tanaka, S. Developing and Validating an Age-Independent Equation Using Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing a Cutoff for Sarcopenia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 809. Yamada, Y.; Nishizawa, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Kasahara, Y.; Shindo, M.; Miyachi, M.; Tanaka, S. Developing and Validating an Age-Independent Equation Using Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing a Cutoff for Sarcopenia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 809.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 809
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070809

Abstract

Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were: 1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) using theoretical models, and 2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained by DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86 years old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht2/Z50) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z5) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = [0.6947 × (Ht2/Z50)] + [-55.24 × (Z250/Z5)] + [-10940 × (1/Z50)] + 51.33 for men, and ALM = [0.6144 × (Ht2/Z50)] + [-36.61 × (Z250/Z5)] + [-9332 × (1/Z50)] + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard deviations of the skeletal muscle mass index (ALM/Ht2) in these participants were 6.8 and 5.7 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: the current study established and validated a theoretical and age-independent equation using MF-BIA to estimate ALM and provided reasonable sarcopenia cutoff values.

Subject Areas

age-related skeletal muscle loss; sarcopenia; malnutrition risk assessment; DXA; multi-frequency BIA; aging

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