Preprint Article Version 2 This version not peer reviewed

Quantum Space and the Evolution of the Dark Universe

Version 1 : Received: 1 June 2017 / Approved: 5 June 2017 / Online: 5 June 2017 (04:17:34 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 9 August 2017 / Approved: 18 August 2017 / Online: 18 August 2017 (04:51:40 CEST)

How to cite: Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and the Evolution of the Dark Universe. Preprints 2017, 2017060019 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201706.0019.v2). Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and the Evolution of the Dark Universe. Preprints 2017, 2017060019 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201706.0019.v2).


We present a model of space that considers it to be a quantized dynamical entity which is a component of the universe along with matter and radiation. The theory is used together with  thermodynamic data  to provide a new view of cosmic  evolution  and an insight into the nature of dark energy and dark matter.          
Space is made up of energy quanta. The universe started from an atomic size volume at very high  temperature and pressure near the Planck epoch. Upon expansion  and  cooling, phase transitions occurred  resulting in the formation of radiation,  fundamental particles, and matter. These  nucleate and grow into stars, galaxies, and clusters. From a phase diagram of cosmic  composition,  we  obtained  a correlation between   dark energy  and the energy of space. Using  the Friedmann  equations, data from WMAP studies of  the composition of the universe  at 3.0 x 105 (a=5.25 x 10-2) years  and at present (a=1), are well fitted by our  model with an equation of state parameter, w= -0.7.  The accelerated expansion of the universe, starting at about 7  billion years, determined by  BOSS measurements,  also correlates well with the dominance of dark energy  at 7.25 x 109 years ( a= 0.65). The expansion  can be  attributed to Quintessence with a  space force  arising from a quantum space field.  From our phase diagram, we also find a correlation suggesting  that  dark matter is a plasma form of matter similar to that  which existed during the photon epoch  immediately prior to recombination.        
Our Quantum Space  Model leads to a  universe which  is  homogeneous and isotropic without the need for inflation. The thermodynamics of expansion is consistent with  BOSS data  that  show the process  to be  adiabatic and the rate of expansion  decelerating  during  the first  6  billion years after the Big Bang.  However, it  became non-adiabatic and accelerating thereafter. This  implies  an influx  of energy from a source outside the universe; it warrants consideration as a possible factor  in  the accelerated expansion of the universe.  

Subject Areas

quantum space; expansion of the universe; dark energy; thermodynamics; dark matter; plasma; recombination; vacuum energy; Cosmological Constant; Quintessence; spaceons

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