Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Quantum Space and the Evolution of the Dark Universe

Version 1 : Received: 1 June 2017 / Approved: 5 June 2017 / Online: 5 June 2017 (04:17:34 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 9 August 2017 / Approved: 18 August 2017 / Online: 18 August 2017 (04:51:40 CEST)

How to cite: Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and the Evolution of the Dark Universe. Preprints 2017, 2017060019 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201706.0019.v2). Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and the Evolution of the Dark Universe. Preprints 2017, 2017060019 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201706.0019.v2).

Abstract

We present a model of space that considers it to be a quantized dynamical entity which is a component of the universe along with matter and radiation. The theory is used together with thermodynamic data to provide a new view of cosmic evolution and an insight into the nature of dark energy and dark matter. Space is made up of energy quanta. The universe started from an atomic size volume at very high temperature and pressure near the Planck epoch. Upon expansion and cooling, phase transitions occurred resulting in the formation of radiation, fundamental particles, and matter. These nucleate and grow into stars, galaxies, and clusters. From a phase diagram of cosmic composition, we obtained a correlation between dark energy and the energy of space. Using the Friedmann equations, data from WMAP studies of the composition of the universe at 3.0 x 105 (a=5.25 x 10-2) years and at present (a=1), are well fitted by our model with an equation of state parameter, w= -0.7. The accelerated expansion of the universe, starting at about 7 billion years, determined by BOSS measurements, also correlates well with the dominance of dark energy at 7.25 x 109 years ( a= 0.65). The expansion can be attributed to Quintessence with a space force arising from a quantum space field. From our phase diagram, we also find a correlation suggesting that dark matter is a plasma form of matter similar to that which existed during the photon epoch immediately prior to recombination. Our Quantum Space Model leads to a universe which is homogeneous and isotropic without the need for inflation. The thermodynamics of expansion is consistent with BOSS data that show the process to be adiabatic and the rate of expansion decelerating during the first 6 billion years after the Big Bang. However, it became non-adiabatic and accelerating thereafter. This implies an influx of energy from a source outside the universe; it warrants consideration as a possible factor in the accelerated expansion of the universe.

Subject Areas

quantum space; expansion of the universe; dark energy; thermodynamics; dark matter; plasma; recombination; vacuum energy; Cosmological Constant; Quintessence; spaceons

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