Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Quantum Space and Dark Energy

Version 1 : Received: 1 June 2017 / Approved: 5 June 2017 / Online: 5 June 2017 (04:17:34 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 9 August 2017 / Approved: 18 August 2017 / Online: 18 August 2017 (04:51:40 CEST)

How to cite: Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and Dark Energy. Preprints 2017, 2017060019 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201706.0019.v1). Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and Dark Energy. Preprints 2017, 2017060019 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201706.0019.v1).

Abstract

The accelerated expansion of the universe is of great scientific interest. It is attributed to Dark Energy. We present a quantum theory of spaceand a thermodynamic approach to modeling the evolution of the universe, that explain it. Space is a dynamical entity made up of energy quanta. From wave particle duality, they can also be considered as a gas. The universe evolved starting from a point size volume of gas at very high temperature and pressure. Upon expansion and cooling, phase transitions occured resulting in the formation of fundamental particles, radiation, and matter; these nucleate and grow into stars, galaxies, and clusters. From a phase diagram of cosmic composition , we obtained a correlation between dark energy and the energy of space. A repulsive space force causes the expansion of the universe; the space quanta arise from a space field. Using the Friedmann equationsdata on the composition of the universe at 3.0 x 105 (a=5.25 x 10−2) years and at present (a=l), obtained from WMAP studies, are well fitted by our model with an equation of state parameter, w= −0.7. The accelerated expansion of the universe, starting at about 7 billion years, determined by BOSS measurements, correlates well with the dominance of dark energy at 7.25 x 109 years ( a= 0.65). The expansion is attributed to Quintessence.

Subject Areas

quantum space; expansion of the universe; dark energy; thermodynamics; dark matter; plasma; cosmic epoch; recombination; Cosmological Constant; Quintessence

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