Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Quantum Space and Dark Energy

Version 1 : Received: 1 June 2017 / Approved: 5 June 2017 / Online: 5 June 2017 (04:17:34 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 9 August 2017 / Approved: 18 August 2017 / Online: 18 August 2017 (04:51:40 CEST)

How to cite: Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and Dark Energy. Preprints 2017, 2017060019. Melendres, C.A. Quantum Space and Dark Energy. Preprints 2017, 2017060019.


The accelerated expansion of the universe is of great scientific interest. It is attributed to Dark Energy. We present a quantum theory of spaceand a thermodynamic approach to modeling the evolution of the universe, that explain it. Space is a dynamical entity made up of energy quanta. From wave particle duality, they can also be considered as a gas. The universe evolved starting from a point size volume of gas at very high temperature and pressure. Upon expansion and cooling, phase transitions occured resulting in the formation of fundamental particles, radiation, and matter; these nucleate and grow into stars, galaxies, and clusters. From a phase diagram of cosmic composition , we obtained a correlation between dark energy and the energy of space. A repulsive space force causes the expansion of the universe; the space quanta arise from a space field. Using the Friedmann equationsdata on the composition of the universe at 3.0 x 105 (a=5.25 x 10−2) years and at present (a=l), obtained from WMAP studies, are well fitted by our model with an equation of state parameter, w= −0.7. The accelerated expansion of the universe, starting at about 7 billion years, determined by BOSS measurements, correlates well with the dominance of dark energy at 7.25 x 109 years ( a= 0.65). The expansion is attributed to Quintessence.


quantum space; expansion of the universe; dark energy; thermodynamics; dark matter; plasma; cosmic epoch; recombination; Cosmological Constant; Quintessence


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

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