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Functional and Regulatory Profiling of Energy Metabolism in Fission Yeast
: Received: 13 October 2016 / Approved: 14 October 2016 / Online: 14 October 2016 (10:58:50 CEST)
Background: The control of energy metabolism is fundamental for cell growth and function, and anomalies are implicated in complex diseases and ageing. It is important for cells to carefully tune metabolic pathways to optimize their function in response to different nutrient or physiological conditions. Metabolism in yeast cells can be easily manipulated by supplying different carbon sources: on glucose yeast rapidly proliferates by fermentation, analogous to tumour cells growing by aerobic glycolysis, whereas on non-fermentable carbon sources metabolism shifts towards respiration. Results: We screened deletion libraries of fission yeast to identify over 200 genes required for respiratory growth. The growth medium and auxotrophic mutants strongly influenced respiratory metabolism. Most genes uncovered in the mutant screens have not been implicated in respiration in budding yeast. We applied gene expression profiling approaches to compare steady-state fermentative and respiratory growth and to analyse the dynamic adaptation to respiratory growth. The transcript levels of most genes functioning in key energy metabolism pathways were coherently tuned, reflecting anticipated differences in metabolic flows between fermenting and respiring cells. We show that the acetyl-CoA synthase, rather than the citrate lyase, is essential for acetyl-CoA synthesis in fission yeast. We also investigated the transcriptional response to mitochondrial damage by genetic or chemical perturbations, defining a retrograde response that involves the concerted regulation of distinct groups of nuclear genes that may avert harm from mitochondrial malfunction. Conclusions: These systematic and targeted analyses provide a rich framework of the genetic and regulatory basis of fundamental metabolic states to guide future studies on energy metabolism in fission yeast and beyond. Our study pinpoints weaknesses of commonly used auxotroph mutants for investigating energy metabolism. As a model for cellular energy regulation, fission yeast provides an attractive and complementary system to budding yeast.
energy metabolism; respiration; fermentation; auxotrophy; retrograde response
Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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