Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The thermodynamics of collapsars

Version 1 : Received: 15 July 2016 / Approved: 19 July 2016 / Online: 19 July 2016 (04:53:26 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Marshall, T.W. The Shell Collapsar—A Possible Alternative to Black Holes. Entropy 2016, 18, 363. Marshall, T.W. The Shell Collapsar—A Possible Alternative to Black Holes. Entropy 2016, 18, 363.


This article argues that there is a consistent description of gravitationally collapsed bodies, including neutron stars above the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff mass and also supermassive galactic centres, according to which collapse stops before the object reaches its gravitational radius, the density reaching a maximum close to the surface and then decreasing towards the centre. Models for such shell-like objects have been constructed using classic formulations found in the 1939 articles of Oppenheimer-Volkoff and Oppenheimer-Snyder. It was possible to modify the conclusions of the first article by changing the authors’ boundary conditions at r = 0. In the second case we find that the authors’ solution of the field equations needs no changes, but that the choice of their article’s title led many of their successors to believe that it supports the black-hole hypothesis. However, it is easily demonstrated that their final density distribution accords with the shell models found in our articles. Because black holes, according to many formulations, "have no hair", their thermodynamics is rather simple. The kind of collapsar which our models describe are more like main-sequence stars; they have spatiotemporal distributions of pressure, density and temperature, that is they have hair. In this article we shall concentrate on the dynamics of the Oppenheimer-Snyder collapsar; both pressure and temperature are everywhere zero, so there can be no thermodynamics. Only in the time independent case of Oppenheimer-Volkoff type models is it currently feasible to consider some thermodynamic implications; here some valuable new insights are obtained through the incorporation of the Oppenheimer-Snyder dynamics.


Gravitational collapse; Oppenheimer-Snyder; horizonless solutions; neutron stars


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

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