Preprint Article Version 5 This version is not peer-reviewed

Realization of Maxwell’s Hypothesis: A Heat-Electric Conversion in Contradiction to the Kelvin Statement

Version 1 : Received: 14 July 2016 / Approved: 14 July 2016 / Online: 14 July 2016 (11:01:36 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 12 December 2016 / Approved: 13 December 2016 / Online: 13 December 2016 (10:19:44 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 December 2016 / Approved: 14 December 2016 / Online: 14 December 2016 (09:12:35 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 14 March 2017 / Approved: 14 March 2017 / Online: 14 March 2017 (13:33:44 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 12 February 2019 / Approved: 15 February 2019 / Online: 15 February 2019 (09:07:52 CET)

How to cite: Fu, X.; Fu, Z. Realization of Maxwell’s Hypothesis: A Heat-Electric Conversion in Contradiction to the Kelvin Statement. Preprints 2016, 2016070028 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201607.0028.v5). Fu, X.; Fu, Z. Realization of Maxwell’s Hypothesis: A Heat-Electric Conversion in Contradiction to the Kelvin Statement. Preprints 2016, 2016070028 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201607.0028.v5).

Abstract

In a vacuum tube, two identical and parallel Ag-O-Cs surfaces, A and B, with a work function 0.8eV, ceaselessly emit thermal electrons at room temperature. The thermal electrons are controlled by a static uniform magnetic field (a magnetic demon), and the number of electrons migrate from A to B exceeds the one from B to A (or vice versa). The net migration from A to B quickly results in a charge distribution, with A charged positively and B negatively. A potential difference between A and B emerges, and the tube outputs an electric current and a power to a load (a resistance, e.g.). The ambient air is a single heat reservoir in the experiment, and all the heat extracted by the tube from the air is converted into electric energy without producing other effects. We believe the experiment is in contradiction to the Kelvin statement of the second law.

Subject Areas

Maxwell’s demon; magnetic demon; entropy decreasing; energy circulation

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