ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Nocturia; Quality of life; Lower urinary tract symptoms, Male adults, NQoL, Urinary frequency, Bedtime urination.
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:14:31 CEST)
Background: Most prevalence surveys on nocturia have focused on older populations. This study aimed to measure the nocturia prevalence across the full spectrum of male adults living in Hong Kong, where severity and associated quality-of-life (QoL) were also explored. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in men aged 18 or above using the ICIQ-NQoL Questionnaire. Results: With 1,239 respondents at age ranged 18-99, the overall nocturia prevalence were found to be 63.0% (ranged 41.6-84.6% at different age groups) and 31.2% (ranged 13.0-56.3% at different age groups), for ≥1 and ≥2 bedtime voiding episodes, respectively. The chance of nocturia was dramatically increased at age 60 or above while both prevalence and voiding frequency were increased with advancing age. About 83% of the nocturia men experienced 1-2 voiding episodes per night, but many of them had self-rated their QoL poor or very poor and indicated moderate-to-high bothersome. Younger men at age 18-39 were found to have high prevalence as 41.6% and almost 30% of them rated poor or very poor QoL. Conclusions: Nocturia was not only affecting the older populations but also caused significant bothersome and negative impacts on QoL in younger males.
Wed, 4 August 2021
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: AIP; PBGD; glucose metabolism; mitobiogenesis; alpha-lipoic acid
Online: 4 August 2021 (14:45:07 CEST)
Background: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is caused by haploinsufficiency of porphobilin-ogen deaminase (PBGD) enzymatic activity. Acute attacks occur in response to fasting and altera-tions in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and mitochondrial turnover may be involved in AIP pathophysiology. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic pathways in PBGD-silenced hepatocytes and assessed the efficacy of an insulin-mimic, the α-lipoic acid (α-LA) as a potential therapeutic strategy. Methods: HepG2 cells were transfected with a siRNA targeting PBGD (siPBGD). Cells were cul-tured with low glucose concentration to mimic fasting and exposed to α-LA alone or with glu-cose. Results: At baseline, siPBGD cells showed lower expression of genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial dynamics along with reduced total ATP levels. Fasting further unbalanced gly-colysis by inducing ATP shortage in siPBGD cells and activated DRP1, which mediates mito-chondrial separation. Consistently, siPBGD cells in fasted state showed the lowest protein levels of Complex IV which belong to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery. α-LA up-regulated glycolysis and prompted ATP synthesis and triglyceride secretion, thus possibly providing energy fuels to siPBGD cells by improving glucose utilization. Finally, siPBGD exposed to α-LA plus glucose raised mitochondrial dynamics, OXPHOS activity and energy production. Conclusions: α-LA-based therapy may ameliorate glucose metabolism and mitochondrial dys-functions in siPBGD hepatocytes. Keywords: AIP, PBGD, glucose metabolism, mitobiogenesis, α-lipoic acid
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 6-OHDA, NF-κB, Mangiferin, Inflammation, Cox, Caspases
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:22:51 CEST)
Background: Persistent up regulation of NF-κB leads to chronic inflammation and subsequent microglial activation and takes neurons towards death by activating death receptor domains and the p53 pathway. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB may lead to more effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, we have used mangiferin, specific inhibitor of NF-κB in this study. Method: The study utilized male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gm (n=8 in each group). Stereotactic surgery of rats was done to induce 6-OHDA lesioning in rats. On day 42, rats were subjected to behavioural studies to evaluate effect of mangiferin and their brains were taken out after euthanasia to perform biochemical and molecular studies. Results: Mangiferin significantly increases locomotor parameters in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. It also decreases activity of Cyclooxygenase enzyme which then leads to decrease concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Microglial inflammation was also substantially reduced by reducing MPO concentration. Oxidative stress burden was also reduced after treatment with mangiferin as indicated by increase in Total Antioxidant Capacity, SOD and Catalase and reduction in concentration of MDA. Treatment with mangiferin also reduces burden of oxidative stress by increasing the activity of NRF2/ARE pathway. Activity of Caspase 3 and 9 was also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin. Significant decrease in activity of both Cox1 and Cox 2 was also observed. Maximum improvement in all parameters was observed in rats treated with grouping of mangiferin 45mg.kg-1 and levodopa 10mg.kg-1. Treatment with levodopa alone has no significant effect on biochemical and molecular parameters though it significantly improves behavioural parameters. Conclusion and Implications: Results of this study suggest that mangiferin has protective effect in hemi-parkinsonian rats by inhibiting NF-κB. Current treatment of Parkinson’s disease does not target the underlying problem of the disease. Therefore, combination therapy of mangiferin and levodopa can be helpful in better management of Parkison’s.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: beta-amyloid toxicity, proteolytic digestion, membrane channel, intracellular ion disturbances, calcium homeostasis, intracellular pH, lysosome
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:19:50 CEST)
In this manuscript, we reassess the data on beta-amyloid-induced changes of intracellular ions concentrations published previously by Abramov et al. (2003, 2004). Their observations made using high-resolution confocal microscopy with fast temporal resolution of images formed by fluorescent ion-sensitive fluorescent probes in living cells represent an unequivocal support for the amyloid channel theory. However, closer look reveals multiple facts which cannot be explained by channel formation in plasma membrane. Recently proposed amyloid degradation toxicity hypothesis provides the interpretation to these facts by considering that channels are formed in the lysosomal membranes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN); Retinol binding protein (RBP); Prognostication; End-stage renal diseases
Online: 4 August 2021 (12:06:22 CEST)
Initially, retinol-binding protein (RBP), was thought to be a biomarker for proximal convoluted tubule dysfunction could be important in chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is an important cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, monitoring MGN patients using urinary RBP is important in effective treatment decision making and prognostication of MGN patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to detect the RBP in the urine samples of 69 MGN patients comprising 47 primary and 22 secondary MGN, at the end of the follow-up period. The test for the urinary biomarker gave the following results: urinary RBP was detected in 27 (39.1%) and 6 (8.7%) of the primary and secondary MGN patients, respectively. The correlation analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between urinary RBP and renal function test parameters, in addition to a logistic regression analysis that proved urinary RBP as a prognostic non-invasive biomarker for primary MGN. Therefore, urinary RBP could be employed to monitor and provide effective prognosis and early treatment decisions in primary MGN.
Tue, 3 August 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pig; Porcine Circovirus 2; ORF2 capsid protein; vaccine; protection.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:01:17 CEST)
Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines are based on either inactivated whole virion, or recombinant ORF2 capsid protein assembled into Virus-like Particles (VLPs). No data are available instead about the immunizing properties of free, non-assembled capsid protein. To investigate this issue, ORF2 of a reference PCV2b strain was expressed in a Baculovirus-based expression system without assembly into VLPs. The free purified protein was formulated into an oil vaccine at three distinct Ag payloads: 10.8 / 3.6 / 1.2 micrograms /dose. Each dose was injected intramuscularly into five, 37-day old piglets, carefully matched for maternally-derived antibody. Five control piglets were injected with sterile PBS in oil adjuvant. Twenty-eight days later, all the pigs were challenged intranasally with 200,000 TCID50 of PCV2b strain DV6503. After challenge infection, all the pigs remained in good clinical conditions. The recombinant vaccine did not induce significant antibody and PCV2-specific IFN-gamma responses. ELISPOT and lymphocyte proliferation data confirmed poor induction of cell-mediated immunity. In terms of PCV2 viremia, there was no significant difference between vaccinated and control animals. The histological data indicated the absence of a detectable viral load and of PCVAD lesions in both vaccinated and control animals, as well as of histiocytes and multi-nucleated giant cells. We conclude that free, non-assembled ORF2 capsid protein does not induce protective immunity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); older people; frailty; antidiabetic drugs; comprehensive geriatric assessment; therapeutic targets; hypoglycemia.
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:07:51 CEST)
Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a chronic condition with increasing prevalence worldwide among the older population. T2DM condition increases the risk of micro and macro-vascular complications as well as the risk of geriatric syndromes as falls, fractures and cognitive impairment. The management of T2DM in the older population represents a challenge for the cli-nician, and a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment should always be prioritized, in order to tailor the glycate haemoglobin target according to functional and cognitive status comorbidities, life ex-pectancy and type of therapy. According to the most recent guidelines, older adults with T2DM should be cathegorized in three groups: healthy patients with good functional status, patients with complications and reduced functionality and patients at the end of life; for each group the target for the glycemic control is different, also according to the type of treatment drug. The therapeutic ap-proach should always begin with lifestyle changes; after that, several lines of therapies are available, with different mechanism of action and potential effect other than glucose level reduction. Partic-ular interest is growing around sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, due to their effect on the cardiovascular system. In this review we evaluate the therapeutic options available for the treat-ment of older diabetic patients, to ensure a correct treatment approach
Mon, 2 August 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0200.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Neuropathic Pain; Combination Therapy; Pharmacotherapy; Randomized Control Trial
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:52:46 CEST)
Pharmacological treatment is not very effective for neuropathic pain (NP). A progressive decrease in the estimated effect of NP drugs has been reported, giving rise to an increase in the use of the multimodal analgesic approach. We performed a new, independent review to assess whether more evidence and of better-quality has become available since the last systematic review. We evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials involving only adult participants and comparing combination therapy (CT: ≥ 2 drugs) to a placebo and/or at least one other comparator with an NP indication. The primary outcome assessed was the proportion of participants reporting ≥50% pain reductions from baseline. The secondary outcome assessed was the proportion of drop-outs due to treatment-emergent adverse events. After removing duplicates, 2323 citations were screened, with 164 articles assessed for eligibility, from which 16 were included for qualitative analysis. From the latter, only five lasted for at least 12 weeks and only six complied with the required data for complete analysis. CT has been adopted for years without robust evidence. Efforts have been made to achieve better-quality evidence, but the quality has not improved over the years. In this regard, guidelines for NP should attempt to make recommendations about CT research, prioritizing which combinations to analyze.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; biomarkers; diagnosis; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the two disorders known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) along with Crohn’s disease (CD), with complex pathogenesis, requiring costly invasive investigations. Objective: to examine the most recent biomarkers proposed for UC diagnosis; to establish the strategy used to make the differential diagnosis between UC and CD relying on these biomarkers, also adding the benefit of finding new non-invasive tools in managing this condition. The search was performed in a single database (Web of Science) using the specific keywords „ulcerative colitis”, „biomarkers” and „diagnosis” for the last five years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults and pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis compared with Crohn’s disease. Results: We selected 57 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical case series (CCS), summarizing the latest most specific biomarkers in diagnosis of UC. Limitations: we considered RCTs and CCS from one database, limited to the search topics. Our findings indicate a important number of potential biomarkers with diagnostic value, which bring the advantage of a non-invasive method to approach this challenging disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; AWaRe; Pharmacovigilance; Lareb; adverse drug reactions
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires urgent multidisciplinary solutions, and Pharmacovigilance (PV) has the potential to strengthen current antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies. This study aimed to characterise AMR-relevant adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (Lareb); (2) Methods: We carried out a descriptive analysis of ADR reports submitted to Lareb, coded with AMR-relevant MedDRA Preferred Terms (PTs).; (3) Results: Between 1998 and Jan 2019, 252 AMR-relevant ADR reports were submitted to Lareb. The most frequent antibiotics were tobramycin (n=89; 35%), colistin (n=30; 11,9%), ciprofloxacin (n=16; 6,35%), doxycycline (n=14; 5,5%) and aztreonam (n=12; 4,76%). The most frequently used PTs were drug ineffective (n=71; 28%), pathogen resistance (n=14; 5%) and drug resistance (n=13; 13%). A total of 119 reports (74%) suggested use-related issues. Watch antibiotics were in 54% of the reports and Reserve antibiotics were in 19%. In the Watch group, “Off label use” and “Product use in unapproved indication” were the most frequent PTs and majority of reports on Reserve antibiotics were coded as “Off label”. (4) Conclusions: Addressing AMR using the PV methods will provide an opportunity for PV expansion and could encourage further investment in both in AMS programs and PV systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Nicotine toxicity; Wnt1 pathway; spinal cord injury; locomotor networks; excitotoxicity; fictive locomotion; postnatal; rat; mice
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:52:54 CEST)
The postnatal rodent spinal cord in-vitro is a useful model to investigate early pathophysiological changes after injury. While low dose nicotine (1µM) induces neuroprotection, how higher doses affect spinal networks is unknown. Using spinal preparations of postnatal wild-type Wistar rat and Wnt1Cre2:Rosa26Tom double-transgenic mouse, we studied the effect of nicotine (0.5-10µM) on locomotor networks in-vitro. Nicotine 10µM induced motoneuron depolarization, suppressed monosynaptic reflexes, and decreased fictive locomotion in rat spinal cord. Delayed fall in neuronal numbers (including motoneurons) of central and ventral regions emerged without loss of dorsal neurons. Conversely, nicotine (0.5-1µM) preserved neurons throughout the spinal cord and strongly activated the Wnt1 signaling pathway. High-dose nicotine enhanced expression of S100 and GFAP in astrocytes suggesting their response to stress. Excitotoxicity induced by kainate was contrasted by nicotine (10µM) in the dorsal area and persisted in central and ventral regions with no change basal Wnt signaling. When combining nicotine with kainate, the activation of Wnt1 was reduced compared to kainate/sham. The present results suggest that high dose nicotine was neurotoxic to central and ventral spinal neurons as the neuroprotective role of Wnt signaling became attenuated. This also corroborates the risk of cigarette smoking for the foetus/newborn since tobacco contains nicotine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: leptin; JAK/STAT pathway; myocardial infarction; hemodynamics; arrhythmias; dyslipidaemia; inflammation; cardiac remodeling
Online: 2 August 2021 (11:24:57 CEST)
Hyperleptinemia potentiates the effects of many atherogenic factors, such as inflammation, platelet aggregation, migration, hypertrophy, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cell dysfunction. The present study analysed the eﬀects of long-term hyperleptinemia in an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model to demonstrate whether the in vivo deleterious effect also affects cardiac structure and function. Rats by were subcutaneously administered leptin for 8 days to estimate the involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway. Data from 58 male Wistar rats were included in the final analysis. Myocardial infarction (MI) was modelled by the 30-minute ligation of the main left coronary artery followed by 120-minute reperfusion. Hemodynamic measurements, electrocardiography monitoring, echocardiography, myocardial infarct size and area at risk, blood biochemical parameters, leptin, IL-6, TNF-alpha, FGF-21, and cardiomyocyte morphology were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics v.26. Seven-day hyperleptinemia in rats led to increased an blood pressure and heart rate, myocardial hypertrophy, impaired LV function, an increased frequency of ischemic arrhythmias, dyslipidaemia, systemic inflammation, and an increased size of induced myocardial infarction. The blockade of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway effectively reversed the negative effects of leptin, including increased blood pressure and total cholesterol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cultured neurons; insulin; glutamate; [Ca2+]i; mitochondrial potential; ATP; oxygen consumption rate; superoxide; ROS
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:10:44 CEST)
Glutamate excitotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer’s disease, for which central insulin resistance is a comorbid condition. Massive glutamate release primarily through ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i, followed by mitochondrial depolarization and an increase in intracellular O2• (superoxide) production. Recently, we found that insulin protected neurons against excitotoxicity by diminishing the delayed calcium deregulation (DCD), However, a role of insulin in superoxide production in excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of insulin on glutamate-evoked superoxide generation and DCD using the fluorescent indicators dihydroethidium, MitoSOX Red, and Fura-FF in rats cultured cortical neurons. We found that insulin significantly diminished both the intracellular and mitochondrial superoxide production in neurons exposed to glutamate and there was a strong linear correlation between [Ca2+]i and intracellular superoxide. MK 801, an inhibitor of NMDAR-gated Ca2+ influx, completely abrogated the glutamate effects in both the presence and absence of insulin. In experiments on sister cultures, insulin diminishes neuronal death. Thus, collectively, data obtained suggest that insulin diminishes glutamate-induced superoxide production in neurons via fall of [Ca2+]i increased and thereby improves viability of neurons
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: DNA methylation; air pollution; particulate matter; saliva; biomarker
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:04:00 CEST)
Background: Exposure in utero to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Although exposure to prenatal PM2.5 and PM10 have cord blood DNA methylation signatures at birth, signature persistence into childhood and saliva cross-tissue applicability has not been tested. Methods: In the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a United States 20-city birth cohort, average residential PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy was estimated using air quality monitors with inverse distance weighting. Saliva DNA methylation at ages 9 (n=749) and 15 (n=793) was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450k BeadArray. Cumulative DNA methylation scores for particulate matter were estimated by weighting participant DNA methylation at each site by meta-analysis effect estimates from Gruzieva et al. 2019 and standardizing the sums. Using mixed effects regression analysis, we tested the associations between cumulative DNA methylation scores at ages 9 and 15 and PM exposure during pregnancy, adjusted for child sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal income to needs ratio, nonmartial birth status, and saliva cell type proportions. Results: Our study sample was 50.5% male, 56.3% non-Hispanic Black, and 19.8% Hispanic, with median income to needs ratio of 1.4. In the third trimester, mean PM2.5 exposure levels were 27.9 ug/m3/day (standard deviation: 7.0, 23.7% of observations exceeded safety standards) and PM10 were 15.0 ug/m3/day (standard deviation: 3.1). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 exposure (10.73 g/m3/day) was associated with -0.0287 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM2.5 (95% CI: -0.0732, 0.0158, p=0.20) across all participants. An interquartile range increase in PM10 exposure (3.20 g/m3/day) was associated with -0.1472 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM10 (95% CI: -0.3038, 0.0095, p=0.06) across all participants. The PM10 findings were driven by the age 15 subset where an interquartile range increase in PM10 exposure was associated with -0.024 standard deviation lower cumulative DNA methylation score for PM10 (95% CI: -0.043, -0.005, p=0.012). Findings were robust to adjustment for PM exposure at ages 1 and 3. Conclusion: In utero PM10 associated DNA methylation differences persist until age 15 and can be detected in saliva. Benchmarking the persistence and cell type generalizability is critical for epigenetic exposure biomarker assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; EVs; exosomes; mesenchymal stem cell EVs; plant-derived EVs; wound healing; scaffolds
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:57:45 CEST)
Each year, millions of individuals suffer from a non-healing wound, abnormal scarring, or injuries accompanied by an infection. For these cases, scientists are searching for new therapeutic interventions, from which one of the most promising is the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Naturally, EV-based signalling takes part in all four wound healing phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Such an extensive involvement of EVs suggests exploiting their action to modulate the impaired healing phase. Furthermore, next to their natural wound healing capacity, EVs can be engineered for better defined pharmaceutical purposes, such as carrying specific cargo or targeting specific destinations by labelling them with certain surface proteins. This review aims to promote scientific awareness in basic and translational research of EVs by summarizing the current knowledge about their natural role in each stage of skin repair and the most recent findings in application areas, such as wound healing, skin regeneration and treatment of dermal diseases, including the stem cell-derived, plant-derived and engineered EVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antitumoral drug; Choline kinase inhibition; Choline uptake
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:42:22 CEST)
Choline kinase inhibitors are an important class of cytotoxic compounds useful for the treatment of different forms of cancer since aberrant choline metabolism is a feature of neoplastic cells. Here we present the characterization and the structure activity relationship of a series of non-symmetrical choline kinase inhibitors characterized by a 3-aminophenol moiety, bound to 4-(dimethylamino)- or 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyridinium cationic heads through several linkers. These derivatives were evaluated both for their inhibitory activity on the enzyme and for their antiproliferative activity in a panel of six human tumor cell lines. The compounds with the best inhibitory results were those connected to the linker by the N-atom (4a-h) and these results are supported by docking studies. The compounds with the best antiproliferative results were those connected to the linker by the O-atom (3a-h). On the other hand, as was predictable in both families, the inhibitory effect on the enzyme is greater the shorter the length of the linker, while in tumor cells, lipophilicity and choline uptake inhibition could play a decisive role. Interestingly compounds 3c and 4f, selected for both their ability to inhibit the enzyme and good antiproliferative activity, are endowed with a low toxicity in non-tumoral cells (e.g human peripheral lymphocytes) respect to cancer cells. These compounds were also able to induce to induce apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells without causing significative variations of cell cycle. It is worth to mention that these derivatives, beside their inhibitory effect on choline kinase, displayed a modest ability to inhibit choline uptake thus suggesting that this mechanism may also contribute to the observed cytotoxicity.
Fri, 30 July 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0710.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: diaper, dioxin; dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; formaldehyde; fragrance.
Online: 30 July 2021 (23:52:09 CEST)
In January 2019, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) published an opinion on risks related to the presence of hazardous chemicals in infant diapers. ANSES found that health reference values were largely exceeded for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins (PCCD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs). The levels of formaldehyde and of some fragrances were also considered potentially unsafe. Therefore, ANSES concluded that actions have to be taken to restrict levels of these contaminants in diapers. Under the exposure scenario deemed the most reliable by ANSES, estimates of cancer risks of the most potent PAHs detected in diapers exceeded 10-3 and hazard quotients for neurobehavioral effects attained values up to 66. Regarding dioxins and DL-PCBs, ANSES derived a hazard quotient of 12 for the risk of decreased sperm count at adult age. The aim of this critical review was to examine whether the exposure and risk assessment conducted by ANSES contained potential flaws that could explain such a high exceedance of health reference values. The review will also put into perspective the exposure from diapers with that from breast milk whose benefits for child’s health are undisputable despite contamination by PAHs, dioxins and DL-PCBS.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Stroke; Qualitative; Narrative; Master Plot; Experience; Perception
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:10:28 CEST)
(1) Background; limited research exists which considers master plots expressed by individuals with Stroke. The literature so far has focused on identified pre-established illness narrative types; (2). Methods: A narrative method was selected and a purposive sample of individuals with Stroke are identified. A categorical-form analysis was undertaken; (3) Results: A narrative master plot named overcoming the monster is identified and explored for its components and located temporally for each participant; (4) Conclusions: Health care professionals need to understand the importance of understanding the master plot overcoming the monster. This research supports the need for health care professionals to recognise and support narratives by listening in a non-directive way.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Very preterm infants; Z-score on weight; neonatal nutrition; appropriate intrauterine neonatal growth
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:00:25 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believes that the smallest preterm infants should achieve normal intrauterine growth rates, but many thinks that this is not possible with current nutrition guidelines. There is resistance to giving enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". The difference in weight Z-score between birth and a corrected gestational age (CGA) at discharge is assess in postnatal growth in our unit. Material and methods: An observational study was done between January 2018 and December 2020 where all cases that had ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth and survived to 36 weeks corrected GA or that were discharged home. An aggressive nutrition protocol including parenteral as well as enteral nutrition was followed. Patients and their weight trajectory was plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve. The patients who had had a smaller WZP difference were also plotted. Results: A total of 32 cases were found. The median change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 (IQR 0.53). Six of 32 (19%) had a more than one WZP, all of whom had severe pathologies. The median decline in Z score for this group with poor growth was 1.24 (IQR 0.22). There were 26 cases with a < 1 WZP (81%) and a median Z score fall of 0.39 (IQR 0.55). No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a > 1 WZP drop had severe pathologies. All the other cases had adequate growth parallel to normal weight growth charts and a few cases had some catch-up growth. The study showed that it is possible for many preterm infants to achieve normal intrauterine growth rates if they are given enough nutrition, but bigger multicenter studies are needed to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: epilepsy; glutamatergic transmission; glutamine synthesis; methionine sulfoximine; metabolomics
Online: 30 July 2021 (14:26:35 CEST)
Pretreatment with non-convulsive dose of methionine sulfoximine (MSO) attenuated lithi-um-pilocarpine-induced (Li-Pilo) seizures in young rats . We hypothesized that the effect of MSO results from a) glutamine synthetase block-mediated inhibition of conversion of Glu/Gln precursors to neurotransmitter Glu, and/or from b) altered synaptic Glu release. Pilo was admin-istered 60 min prior to sacrifice, MSO at 75 mg/kg, i.p., 2.5 h earlier. [1,2-13C]acetate and [U-13C]glucose were i.p.-injected either together with Pilo (onset) or 15 min before sacrifice (final phase). Their conversion to Glu and Gln in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex was followed us-ing [13C] gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Release of in vitro loaded [3H]D-Asp from ex vi-vo brain slices was measured in continuously collected superfusates. Protein and mRNA expres-sion were measured by Western Blot and real-time PCR techniques, respectively. At no time point nor brain region did MSO modify incorporation of [13C] to Glu or Gln in Pilo-treated rats. MSO pretreatment decreased by ~37% high potassium-induced [3H]D-Asp release and reduced by ~50% the synaptic vesicular Glu transporter VGLUT1 protein, but not mRNA content in the hippo-campus. The results indicate that MSO at non-convulsive dose mitigates the initial Pilo-induced seizures by interfering with synaptic Glu-release but not with neurotransmitter Glu recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tympanic membrane; chronic perforation; fat myringoplasty; success rate; middle ear packing; fibrin glue packing
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:25:54 CEST)
Background: To date, FM using middle ear packing has rarely reported. In this study, we hypothesized that middle ear packing with dexamethasone soaked gelfoam and fibrin glue over the fat graft could promote the success rate of TMP closure regardless of perforation size. Methods: Between January 2005 and July 2020, a total of 209 patients who underwent fat myringoplasty due to chronic TMP at tertiary referral center were encountered and analyzed. The success rate and audiologic outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean successful TM closure rate was 88.0 %. The success rate by different age generation was not significant difference. The size of the perforation grade showed no significant difference. The perforation site by anterior or posterior was not significant. The preoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 55.71, 12.98 and 42.73 dB respectively. The postoperative mean threshold of AC, BC and ABG were 23.67, 12.98 and 10.69 dB. The change of preoperative and postoperative hearing showed statistically significant. Conclusion: From our results, the simple trimming of the perforation edge and middle ear packing with external ear canal packing using fibrin glue induced the stable adhesion between the remnant TM and the fat graft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Lyme disease; Quebec; Spatiotemporal patterns; front wave velocity; clusters; emergence
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:38:26 CEST)
Lyme disease is a growing public health problem in Québec. Its emergence over the last decade is caused by environmental and anthropological factors that favour the survival of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease transmission. The objective of this study was to estimate the speed and direction of Lyme disease emergence in Québec and to identify spatiotemporal risk patterns. A surface trend analysis was conducted to estimate the speed and direction of its emergence based upon the first detected case of Lyme disease in each municipality in Québec since 2004. A cluster analysis was also conducted to identify at-risk regions across space and time. These analyses were reproduced for the date of disease onset and date of notification for each case of Lyme disease. It was estimated that Lyme disease is spreading northward in Québec at a speed varying between 18 and 32 km/year according to the date of notification and the date of disease onset, respectively. A high rate of disease risk was found in seven clusters identified in the south-west of Québec in the sociosanitary regions of Montérégie and Estrie. The results obtained in this study improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in Québec, which can be used for proactive, targeted interventions by public and clinical health authorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mHealth; multiple sclerosis; telemonitoring; longitudinal assessment; rehabilitation; fatigue; walking; cognition
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:26:43 CEST)
The development of mobile technology and internet mobile offers new possibilities in both rehabilitation and for patients’ assessment in a longitudinal and MS management perspective. However, because the mobile health applications (mHealth) have only been developed recently, the level of evidence supporting the use of mHealth in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is currently unclear. Therefore, this study aims to list and describe the different mHealth available for rehabilitation and self-assessment of pwMS and to define the level of evidence supporting these interventions for functioning problems categorized within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). 36 studies, performed with 22 different mHealth, were included in this review, 30 about rehabilitation and 6 for self-assessment, representing 3,091 patients. For rehabilitation, most of the studies were focusing on cognitive function and fatigue. Concerning the efficacy we found a small but significant effect of the use of mHealth for cognitive training (SMD = 0.28 [0.12 ; 0.45]) and moderate effect for fatigue (SMD = 0.61 [0.47 ; 0.76]). mHealth is a promising tool in pwMS but more studies are needed to validate these solutions in the others ICF categories. More replications studies are also needed as most of the mHealth have only been assessed in one single study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0680.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: NEC; Surgical; Medical; Risk factor; Outcome; Neonate
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:11:09 CEST)
Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in newborns, however, little is understood of which patients can be treated medically or require surgery. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associated factors of surgically treated patients compared to patients requiring only medical treatment. Methods: Patients diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis over a period of 14 years in a single children’s hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Demographics and clinical data patients were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 189 patients with NEC were included. Surgically treated patients had a lower gestational age (P = .018), body weight at birth (P = .034), and percentage of exclusive breast milk feeding (P= .001). They had increased comorbidity with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (P = .005), number of days of antibiotic use (P = .014), and length of hospital stay (P = .000). In multivariate logistic analysis, a lower percentage of exclusive breast milk feeding (OR = 0.366, 95% CI: 0.164-0.817) and a longer hospital stay (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 1.001- 1.019) was associated with surgical NEC. Conclusion: Comparing medical and surgical NEC, a significantly lower percentage of surgical NEC patients were exclusively fed breast milk and their hospital stays were longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ultrasound; endometrial cancer; lymph nodes metastasis; myometrial invasion; tumor-free distance
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:06:16 CEST)
Background: Ultrasonography’s usefulness in endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosis consists of its staging and predictive roles. Ultrasound-measured tumor-free distance from the tumor to the uterine serosa (uTFD) is a promising marker for this variable. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of this biomarker in locoregional staging, and thus in the prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Methods: We conducted a single-institutional, prospective study on 116 consecutive patients with EC who underwent 2D transvaginal ultrasound examination. The uTFD marker was compared with the depth of ultrasound-measured myometrial invasion (uMI). Univariate and multivariate logit models were evaluated to assess the predictive power of the uTFD and uMI in regard to LNM. The reference standard was a final histopathology result. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meyer method. Results: LNM was found in 17% of the patients (20/116). In the univariate analysis, uMI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 70.7%, and NPV was 92.68% (OR 4.746, 95% CI 1.710-13.174) for uMI (p = 0.002), and 63.8%, and 89.02% (OR 0.842, 95% CI 0.736 – 0.963), respectively, for uTFD (p = 0.01). The cut-off value for uTFD in the prediction of LNM was 5.2 mm. The absence of LNM was associated more with biomarker values uMI <1/2 and uTFD >=5.2 mm than with the presence of metastases with uMI >1/2 and uTFD values <5.2 mm. In the multivariate analysis, the accuracy of the uMI-uTFD model was 74%, and NPV was 90.24% (p = NS). Neither uMI nor uTFD are surrogates for overall and recurrence-free survivals in endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Both uMI and uTFD, either alone or in combination, are valuable tools for gaining additional preoperative information on expected lymph node status. Negative lymph nodes status is better described by ultrasound biomarkers than a positive status. It is easier to use uTFD measurement as a biomarker of EC invasion than uMI, and the former still maintains a similar predictive value for lymph node metastases to the latter at diagnosis.
Thu, 29 July 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: axon initial segment (AIS); action potential (AP); ankyrin-G; spectrins; plasticity; neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs)
Online: 29 July 2021 (15:49:42 CEST)
The 20–60-μm axon initial segment (AIS) is proximally located at the interface between the axon and cell body. AIS has characteristic molecular and structural properties regulated by the crucial protein, ankyrin-G. The AIS contains a high density of Na+ channels relative to the cell body, which allows low thresholds for initiation of action potential (AP). Molecular and physiological studies have shown that the AIS is also a key domain for the control of neuronal excitability by homeostatic mechanisms. The AIS has high plasticity in normal developmental processes and pathological activities such as injury, neurodegeneration, and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In the first half of this review, we provide an overview of the molecular, structural, and ion-channel characteristics of AIS, AIS regulation through axo-axonic synapses, and axo-glial interactions. In the second half, to understand the relationship between NDDs and AIS, we discuss the activity-dependent plasticity of AIS, the human mutation of AIS regulatory genes, and the pathophysiological role of the abnormal AIS in the NDD model animals and patients. We propose that AIS may provide a potentially valuable structural biomarker in response to abnormal network activity in vivo as well as a new treatment concept at the neural circuit level.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; WNT3a; WNT5a; beta-catenin; TGF-beta signalling; IL-11; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:15:00 CEST)
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process associated with development of heart failure. TGF-β and WNT signaling have been implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, however little is known about molecular cross-talk between these two pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous canonical WNT3a and non-canonical WNT5a in TGF-β-activated human cardiac fibroblasts. We found that WNT3a and TGF-β induced -catenin-dependent response, whereas WNT5a prompted AP-1 activity. TGF-β triggered profibrotic signature in cardiac fibroblasts, and co-stimulation with WNT3a or co-activation of the β-catenin pathway with GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced collagen I and fibronectin production and development of active contractile stress fibers. In the absence of TGF-β, neither WNT3a nor CHIR99021 exerted profibrotic response. On a molecular level, in TGF-β-activated fibroblasts WNT3a enhanced phosphorylation of TAK1 and production and secretion of IL-11 but showed no effect on Smad pathway. Neutralization of IL-11 activity with the blocking anti-IL-11 antibody effectively reduced profibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts activated with TGF-β and WNT3a. In contrast to canonical WNT3a, co-activation with non-canonical WNT5a suppressed TGF-β-induced production of collagen I. In conclusion, WNT/β-catenin signaling promotes TGF-β-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition by enhancing IL-11 production. Thus, the uncovered mechanism broadens our knowledge on molecular basis of cardiac fibrogenesis and defines novel therapeutic targets for fibrotic heart diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic disorders; inflammation; human superorganism; holobiont; microbiome; multimorbidity; microimmunosome; polypharmacy; drug safety; sustainable healthcare
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:37:20 CEST)
Microbiome First Medicine is a suggested 21st century healthcare paradigm that prioritizes the entire human, the human superorganism, beginning with the microbiome. To date, much of medicine has protected and treated patients as if they were a single species. This has resulted in unintended damage to the microbiome and an epidemic of chronic disorders [e.g., noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs)]. Along with NCDs came loss of colonization re-sistance, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, and increasing multimorbidity and polypharmacy over the life course. To move toward sustainable healthcare, the human micro-biome needs to be front and center. This paper presents microbiome-human physiology from the view of systems biology regulation. It also details the ongoing NCD epidemic including the role of existing drugs and other factors that damage the human microbiome. Examples are provided for two entryway NCDs, asthma and obesity, regarding their extensive network of comorbid NCDs. Finally, the challenges of ensuring safety for the microbiome are detailed. Under Microbiome First Medicine and considering the importance of keystone bacteria and critical windows of development, changes in even a few microbiota-prioritized medical decisions could make a significant difference in health across the life course.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
Wed, 28 July 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS); biomarkers; specific and effective treatments; TTS management; genetic and epigenetic factors; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:07:01 CEST)
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress’s cardiomyopathy, or better as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in the recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by the strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the reduced understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in the last years, and particularly correlated to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial form of TTS has been described. But a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we, here, conducted a systematic review of literature before June 2021, to contribute to identify potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but of reduced number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and probably a clear evidence may arrive using multi-omics investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0599.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Clinical Study; Retrospective Studies; Surgical Procedures, Operative; Postoperative Period; Follow-Up Studies.
Online: 28 July 2021 (16:56:31 CEST)
Background In this study, we describe our clinical experience with the fifth-generation of a breast implant with a smooth, fine surface from a Korean manufacturer (BellaGelÒ SmoothFine; HansBiomed Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea) in Asian women. Methods We analyzed 223 women (mean age=35.28±9.45 years and mean follow-up period=12.03±2.48 months), comprising 118 bilateral cases and 109 unilateral ones, who received breast augmentation using the BellaGelÒ SmoothFine at our hospital between June 4, 2018 and February 28, 2019. For safety assessment, we analyzed frequencies of postoperative complications and overall survival of the BellaGelÒ SmoothFine. Results Postoperatively, complications (12 cases, 5.38%) include asymmetry (3 cases, 1.35%), hematoma (2 cases, 0.90%), hypertrophic scars (2 cases, 0.90%), wound disruption (2 cases, 0.90%), rippling (1 case, 0.45%), capsular contracture (1 case, 0.45%), stretch deformities with skin excess (1 case, 0.45%). In addition, time-to-events were calculated as 10.94±0.64 months (95% CI 9.69-12.19) and the survival rate reached 0.290±0.168 (95% CI 0.094-0.901) at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions Here, we describe our clinical experience with the BellaGelÒ SmoothFine. Our results are of significance in that this is the first report about the fifth-generation of a breast implant with a smooth, fine surface from a Korean manufacturer in Asian women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVD-19; moral distress; healthcare worker; mental health; communication; leadership
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:45:50 CEST)
Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.
Tue, 27 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: schizophrenia; neuro-immune; inflammation; physiological stress; bacterial translocation; psychiatry; LPS
Online: 27 July 2021 (09:16:54 CEST)
There is evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by activation of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and compensatory immune-regulatory (CIRS) systems and lowered neuroprotection. Studies performed on antipsychotic-naïve first episode psychosis (AF-FEP) and schizophrenia (FES) patients are important as they may disclose the pathogenesis of the disease. However, the interactome of FEP/FES is not well delineated. The aim of the current study was to delineate the characteristics of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of AN-FEP and its transition to FES and the biological functions, pathways, and molecular patterns, which are over-represented in FEP/FES. PPI network analysis shows that FEP and FEP/FES are strongly associated with a response to a bacterium, TNF, NFκB, RELA, SP1, JAK-STAT, death receptor and TLR4 signaling, and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT proteins. Specific molecular complexes of the peripheral immune response are associated with microglial activation, neuroinflammation and gliogenesis. FEP/FES is accompanied by lowered protection against inflammation in part attributable to dysfunctional miRNA maturation, deficits in neurotrophin/Trk, RTK and Wnt/catenin signaling and adherens junction organization. Lowered neuroprotection due to reduced neurotrophin/Trk and Wnt/catenin signaling, and DISC1 expression and multiple interactions between lowered BDNF, CDH1, CTNNB, and DISC1 expression, increase the vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of immune products including cytokines and complement factors. All pathways or molecular patterns enriched in the interactome of FEP/FES are directly or indirectly affected by LPS. In summary: FEP appears to be triggered by a biotic stimulus (e.g. Gram-negative bacteria) which may induce neuro-immune toxicity cascades especially when anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic protections are deficient.
Mon, 26 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0578.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: docetaxel; combination therapy; nanoparticles; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; oncology; therapies
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:04:49 CEST)
Objective: The combination of docetaxel (DTX) with Laser-Activated NanoTherapy (LANT), as a treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of lower doses of DTX, thereby minimizing the effective dosage, side effects and treatment times. Material and methods: Three HNSCC cell lines, Detroit 562, FaDu, and CAL 27, were treated with four combinations of DTX + LANT to evaluate DTX dose reduction and cell viability. Results: The 1 nM DTX + 5 nM LANT combination was the most effective treatment, increasing cell death over its corresponding DTX monotreatment with approximately 86.6%, 80.7%, and 92.1% cell death for Detroit 562, FaDu, and CAL 27, respectively. In Detroit 562, the 1 nM DTX + 5 nM LANT combination treatment resulted in the highest percentage of DTX dose reduction at 84.6%; in FaDu and CAL 27, the 0.5 nM DTX + 5 nM LANT combination treatment resulted in the highest percentage of DTX dose reduction at 78.2% and 82.4%, respectively. Conclusion: LANT may increase the therapeutic efficacy of DTX at significantly lower doses, which could improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0565.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus; seronegative; NK cells; viral IL-10
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:32:17 CEST)
The majority of adults in the world (around 83%) carry antibodies reactive with HCMV and are thought to retain inactive or latent infections lifelong. The virus is transmitted via saliva so infection events are likely to be common. Indeed it is hard to imagine a life without exposure to HCMV. From 45 seronegative individuals (13 renal transplant recipients, 32 healthy adults), we present seven cases who had detectable HCMV DNA in their blood and/or saliva, or a CMV-encoded homologue of IL-10 (vIL-10) in their plasma. One case displayed NK cells characteristic of CMV infection, and HCMV DNA became undetectable. In other cases, the infection may persist with seroconversion blocked by vIL-10. Future research should seek mechanisms that can prevent an individual from seroconverting despite a persistent HCMV infection, as HCMV vaccines may not work well in such people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Neurological activity; GC-MS; ADMET profile; Molecular Docking; Beta-amyloid precursor protein; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:27:40 CEST)
Medicinal plants possess a surplus of novel and biologically active secondary metabolites that are responsible for counteracting diseases. Traditionally, Gomphandra tetrandra (Wall.) Sleumer is used to treat mental disorders. The present research was designed to explore phytochemicals from the ethanol leaf extract of Gomphandra tetrandra (Wall.) Sleumer to identify the potential pharmacophore(s) in the treatment of neurological disorders. The chemical compounds of the experimental plant were identified through GC-MS analysis. Besides, in-vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using different methods. Furthermore, in-vivo neurological activity was assessed in Swiss-albino mice. Computer aided analysis was appraised to determine the best-fit phytoconstituent of a total of fifteen identified compounds in the experimental plant extract against beta-amyloid precursor protein. The experimental extract revealed fifteen compounds in GC-MS analysis and the highest content was 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z, Z, Z). Also, the extract showed potent anti-oxidant activity in in-vitro assays. Furthermore, in in-vivo neurological assays, the extract disclosed significant (p<0.05) neurological activity. The most favorable phytochemicals as neurological agents were selected via ADMET profiling and molecular docking was studied with beta-amyloid precursor protein. Moreover, in the computer aided study, 1, 5-Diphenyl-2H-1, 2, 4-triazoline-3-thione (Pub Chem CID: 2802516) was more active than other identified compounds with strong binding affinity to beta-amyloid precursor protein. The present in vivo and in silico studies revealed neuropharmacological features of G. tetrandra leaves extract as a natural agent against neurological disorders, especially Alzheimer’s disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lenvatinib; Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; Propensity score matching
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:59:34 CEST)
The comparative efficacy and safety between lenvatinib and hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. This multicenter historical cohort study enrolled 244 patients who were treated with HAIC (n = 173) or lenvatinib (n = 71) between 2012 and 2020. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed, and 52 patients were selected per group. Clinical outcomes and safety were compared. Objective response rate (ORR) was not different between the two groups (26.0% vs. 23.1%, P = 0.736). Before PSM, HAIC group had a higher proportion of Child-Pugh B and portal vein tumor, whereas lenvatinib group had more patients with extrahepatic metastases, which was adjusted after PSM. There were no differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after PSM (HAIC vs. lenvatinib, median PFS, 3.6 vs. 4.0 months, P = 0.706; median OS 10.8 vs. 7.9 months, P = 0.106). Multivariate Cox-regression showed that alpha-fetoprotein ≤ 1000 ng/mL was only associated factor for OS after PSM in all patients (hazard ratio = 0.421, P = 0.011). Subgroup analysis for patients with high tumor burden beyond the REFLECT eligibility criteria revealed that HAIC group (n = 29) had a significantly longer OS than did lenvatinib group (n = 30) (10.0 vs. 5.4 months, P=0.004). More patients in HAIC group achieved better liver function than those in lenvatinib group at the time of best responses. There was no difference in the incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events between the two groups. Therefore, lenvatinib is comparable to HAIC in terms of ORR and OS in unresectable HCC meeting REFLECT eligibility criteria.
Fri, 23 July 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: TRβ; tumor suppression; co-regulators; therapeutics
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:14:12 CEST)
There is compelling evidence that the nuclear receptor TRβ, a member of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family, is a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and other solid tumors. Cell-based and animal studies reveal that the liganded TRβ induces apoptosis, reduces an aggressive phenotype, decreases stem cell populations, and slows tumor growth through modulation of a complex interplay of transcriptional networks. TRβ-driven tumor suppressive transcriptomic signatures include repression of known drivers of proliferation such as PI3K/Akt pathway and activation of novel signaling (JAK1/STAT1) and metabolic reprogramming in both thyroid and breast cancers. The presence of TRβ is also correlated with a positive prognosis and response to therapeutics in BRCA+ and triple-negative breast cancers respectively. Ligand activation of TRβ enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. TRβ co-regulators and bromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling proteins are emergent therapeutic targets. This review considers TRβ as a potential biomolecular diagnostic and therapeutic target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0544.v1
Online: 23 July 2021 (12:30:21 CEST)
Background. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch is commonly used during surgical closure for atrial septal defect (ASD) and/or ventricular septal defect (VSD). It has several limitations such as inability to grow, repair, and remodel. Aneurysm formation, thrombosis, and the inability of patches to grow or remodel are usual, especially in children and young adults. To tackle these limitations, we try to use fibronectin and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in PTFE patch. Objective. To understanding positive impact of fibronectin to enhance hAMSCs cell-to-cell adherence and cell-to-patch surface attachment into PTFE patch for future ASD or VSD closure. Methods. Cultured of hAMSCs cells were fixated with 15 mL methanol and CD90+, CD105+, CD45- antibodies were labeled FITC, rinsed with PBS and analyzed under fluorescence microscope for 15 minutes. Fibronectin solution 0.1% were used to soak patch scaffolds for approximately 2 hours duration, and then dried for 20 minutes for treatment group. As for control group, Fibronectin solution was not added on the culture. The samples were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM examination showed incomplete attachment of the cells even after 10 days on control group at 1.14 ±1.13 (Figure 2). In contrast, treatment group showed more cells attached to the patch surface at 31.25 ±13.28 (p 0.000) (Figure 3). Observation at 5 days was 17.67 ± 20.21, at 7 days was 12.11 ± 10.94, at 10 days was 18.83 ± 23.25. No significant statistical difference of mean cell per view among each treatment group (p 0.802). Conclusion. Fibronectin has a positive impact on hAMSCs attachment seeded onto PTFE patch. These properties, in combination with their developmental plasticity, have generated tremendous interest because of the potential use of hAMSCs in regenerative medicine to replace damaged tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Stroke; Qualitative; Narrative; Master Plot; Experience; Perception
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:54:47 CEST)
(1) Background; limited research exists which considers master plots expressed by individuals with Stroke. The literature so far has focused on identified pre-established illness narrative types; (2). Methods: A narrative method was selected and a purposive sample of individuals with Stroke are identified. A categorical-form analysis was undertaken; (3) Results: A narrative master plot named overcoming the monster is identified and explored for its components and located temporally for each participant; (4) Conclusions: Health care professionals need to understand the importance of understanding the master plot overcoming the monster. This research supports the need for health care professionals to recognise and support narratives by listening in a non-directive way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plant; spices; condiment; anti-dyslipidemic effect; Cd toxicity
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:43:35 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs) and HDL-TAG concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs, HDL-TAG, TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations n lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances ofCd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas; Prognosis; Resection; Risk factors
Online: 23 July 2021 (08:07:47 CEST)
Several treatment guidelines for sporadic, nonmetastatic nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-pNETs) have recommended resection, however, tumors ≤ 2 cm do not necessarily need surgery. This study aimed to establish a surgical treatment plan for NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm. From 2000 to 2017, 483 patients who underwent resection for NF-pNETs ≤ 2cm in 18 institutions from Korea and China were enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. Median age was 56 (range 16- 80) years. The 10-year overall survival rate (10Y-OS) and recurrence-free survival rate (10Y-RFS) were 89.8 and 93.1%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, tumor size (> 1.5cm; p = 0.001) and nodal metastasis (p = 0.013) were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. Perineural invasion (p = 0.008) and high Ki-67 index (≥3%; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for poor RFS. NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm showed unfavorable prognosis after resection when the tumor was larger than 1.5cm, Ki-67 index ≥ 3%, or nodal metastasis was present. NF-pNET patients with tumors ≤ 1.5cm can be observed if the preoperative Ki-67 index is under 3%, and if nodal metastasis is not suspected in preoperative radiologic studies. These findings support the clinical use to make decision about small NF-pNETs.
Thu, 22 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: transgender; fertility preservation; decision making preferences
Online: 22 July 2021 (17:37:03 CEST)
Little is known about fertility preservation within the TGD community. Few receive adequate counseling placing them at risk for decision regret. The goal of this project was to develop, and pilot test the Transgender Fertility Preservation Knowledge Scale (TFPKS) to support the development and evaluation of health education resources. A community engaged; cross sectional retrospective design was used. Participants (n=189) provided information describing demographics, healthcare decision-making preferences, experiences/knowledge of fertility preservation, and treatment decision regret. The sample included 189 TGD adults. Most were white and aged 26-35 (33.3%) and not offered a consultation (73.0%). Many (41.2%) report they would have participated if offered. Knowledge regarding fertility preservation to support this desire was low. Most participants identified a patient-centered (69.4%) decision making preference. Much remains to address the healthcare inequities within the TGD population regarding fertility preservation. Overall participants had low levels of knowledge to support decision making. Further, healthcare system and individual barriers to fertility preservation remain prevalent. A foundational step towards addressing these disparities, is the identification of a valid and reliable instrument to measure TGD knowledge of fertility preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: apoptosis; autophagy; bafilomycin A1; diffuse large B cell lymphoma
Online: 22 July 2021 (13:43:07 CEST)
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adulthood, remains challenging clinical issues. Despite enhanced remission rates can be achieved, there are one-third of patients who will not respond to current treatment or will relapse with resistant disease, necessitating ongoing efforts on effective treatment strategies and agents. The vacuole H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 is broadly used to block late stage of autophagy flux at high concentration. In this study, we show that, to our surprise, bafilomycin A1 effectively inhibited and killed DLBCL cells at nanomolar concentrations (5nM). Bafilomycin A1 targeted cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 to induce cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Meanwhile, it induced caspase-dependent apoptosis with concomitant cleaved caspase-3 and Parp. Furthermore, we found that bafilomycin A1 inhibited autophagy flux at both early and late stages of the autophagy flux through activating ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, as well as by inhibiting the degradation of autolysosomes. We speculated that bafilomycin A1 as autophagy inhibitor might enhance the effect of DLBCL chemotherapeutic drug rituximab. Accordingly, our results provided evidence that the combination of bafilomycin A1 with rituximab enhanced the inhibition of DLBCL cells notably. Taken together, our data suggest that bafilomycin A1 may be a promising candidate drug in the therapy of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; BDNF
Online: 22 July 2021 (07:49:33 CEST)
Various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hypothyroidism (AHT), are associated with a higher risk of developing mood disorders throughout life. Depression is accompanied by the changes in the levels of inflammatory and trophic factors, including interleukines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6), interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Similar disturbances in the cytokine profile are seen in AHT patients and their relatives. Disclosure of the relationship between the co-existence of depression and autoimmune subclinical thyroiditis indicates that the pathomecha-nism of depression may be related to the changes in the immune system, it is possible that both conditions may be caused by the same immune processes. The above hypothesis is indirectly sup-ported by the observations that the treatment with both antidepressants and levothyroxine leads to a decrease in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines with an increase in BDNF concentrations, simultaneously correlating with an improvement in the clinical parameters. However, so far there are no long-term studies determining the causal relationship between depression, thyroid auto-antibodies, and cytokine profile, which could bring us closer to understanding the interrelation-ships between them and facilitate the use of an adequate pharmacotherapy, not necessarily psy-chiatric. We consider the above issues insufficiently investigated but of great importance. This ar-ticle is an overview of the available literature as well as an introduction to our research project.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Drug repositioning; Molecular modelling; Beauvericin
Online: 22 July 2021 (07:48:33 CEST)
Drug discovery has been initially attributed to coincidence or trial and error where the traditional approach was complex, lengthy, and expensive. Conventional drug discovery methods require the costly random screening of synthesized compounds or natural products. Another downside for this approach is the wide dependency on the experimental use of animals for in vi-vo testing. Currently, in silico modeling has become a vital tool for drug discovery and repurposing, and molecular docking is being used to find the best matching between a ligand and a molecule. Practical application of in silico docking will predict the biomolecular interactions between the drug and the target host. Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging mycotoxin produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Originally investigated for its pesticide capability, BEA is now considered as a molecule of interest for its potentially diverse biotechnological applications in the pharmacological industry and the field of medicine. In this manuscript, we will provide an overview of the repurposing of BEA into a potentially superior therapeutic molecule in a broad range of diseases. Furthermore, considerable attention has been given to the fundamental role of in silico techniques to i) further investigate the spectrum of this secondary metabolite and ii) elucidate the pathways of BEA for its promising therapeutic action
Wed, 21 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0503.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cytotoxicity; Glioblastoma multiform; Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); Poly D- L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA); U-87 MG glioma cell lines
Online: 21 July 2021 (16:37:21 CEST)
PHLNs (polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticles) are core–shell nanoparticle structures made up of polymer cores and lipid shells that have properties similar to both polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. Methotrexate (MTX) loaded PLHNPs containing tween 80, phosphatidylcholine, poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) & glyceryl tripalmitate prepared using solvent injection & homogenization method for glioblastoma treatment option. The MTX loaded PLHNPs optimized by Box–Behnken design to minimize particle size, higher entrapment efficacy, and maximize MTX concentration in the brain at 4h. The particle size, entrapment efficacy, concentration of drug in brain at 4h, zeta potential and AUC(Brain)/AUC(Plasma) ratio were in the range of 173.51-233.37nm, 70.56-86.34%, 6.38-12.38 μg/mL, 25.78-36.31mV & 1.02-5.32. in-vitro drug release studies, cellular internalization of optimized formulation against U-87 MG shows good anticancer effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; perioperative therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; adjuvant therapy
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:58:36 CEST)
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadju-vant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improve-ment in the 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that ad-juvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged dis-ease-free survival than adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote im-munogenic cell death, which releases tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: kidney cancers; VHL; PD-1; PD-L1; PD-L2; BAP1; PBRM; SETD2; primary tumor; metastasis.
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:42:20 CEST)
Novel mechanism of ccRCC progression is essential, including PBRM1, BAP1, and SETD2 in histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling genes. The study aimed to investigate VHL, PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2. BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2 expression in ccRCC primary cancers and metastatic tissues associated with the cancer dissemination. A total of 62 patients with RCC were enrolled in the study. Investigation of mRNA level of VHL, PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2. PCR in real-time performed BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2 with the previous RNA isolation. Western Blotting analysis was used for detecting the p-VHL protein content in tissues. The VHL expression and p-VHL content determined the aggressive cancer behavior and elevated in disseminated tumors. The cancer dissemination was accompanied by an increase in both mRNA and VHL content. The PD-L2 prevalence in metastatic cancers is crucial in tumor progression. ccRCC progression in VHL overexpression is associated with the decrease in BAP1 gene expression. It is revealed the heterogeneity in molecular markers in primary tumors and metastases. The low mRNA level of BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2, PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 in metastases compared with primary tumors were found. We show a novel mechanism for VHL tumor progression and present a new instrument and factor targeting tumor-related pathologies with p-VHL/HIF altered function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Households; antimalarial; Health seeking behaviour; malaria
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:51:26 CEST)
(1) Background: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is heavily affected by malaria despite availability of effective treatments. Ignorance and unrecommended behaviour toward a suspected malaria case in households may contribute to this problem. (2) Method: In communities of one rural and one urban Health Centers in each of the 11 previous provinces of DRC, all households with a case of malaria in the 15 days prior to the survey were selected. The patient or caregiver (responder) were interviewed. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of knowledge of recommended antimalarials and good behaviour in case of suspected malaria. (3) Results: 1,732 households participated; about 62% (1060/1721) of the responders were informed about antimalarials, 70.1% (742/1059) knew the recommended antimalarial and 58.6% (995/1699) resorted on self-medication. Predictors of knowledge of antimalarials were education to secondary school or university, information from media and smaller households. Predictors of good behaviour were catholic religion and smaller households. Receiving information from CHW failed to be determinants of knowledge or adequate attitude. (4) Conclusion: malaria control in DRC is hampered by ignorance and non-adherence to national recommendations. These aspects are influenced by unsuccessful communication, size of households and level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: metformin; Natural Killer cells; Cytotoxic T lymphocytes; intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); Natural Killer G2-D (NKG2D) ligands (NKG2DL); lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:54:14 CEST)
Solid tumor cells have an altered metabolism that can protect them from cytotoxic lymphocytes. The antidiabetic drug metformin modifies tumor cell metabolism and several clinical trials are testing its effectiveness for the treatment of solid cancers. The use of metformin in hematologic cancers has received much less attention, although allogeneic cytotoxic lymphocytes are very effective against these tumors. We show here that metformin induces expression of Natural Killer G2-D (NKG2D) ligands (NKG2DL) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a ligand of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). This leads to enhance sensitivity to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members decrease both metformin effects. The sensitization to activated cytotoxic lymphocytes is mainly mediated by the increase on ICAM-1 levels, which favors cytotoxic lymphocytes binding to tumor cells. Finally, metformin decreases the growth of human hematological tumor cells in xenograft models, mainly in presence of monoclonal antibodies that recognize tumor antigens. Our results suggest that metformin could improve cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cancer pain; breakthrough cancer pain; cluster analysis
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:50:29 CEST)
Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is a temporary exacerbation of pain that "breaks through" a phase of adequate pain control by an opioid-based therapy. The non-predictable BTcP (NP-BTcP) is a subtype of BTcP that occurs in the absence of any specific activity. Since NP-BTcP has an important clinical impact, this analysis is aimed at characterizing the NP-BTcP phenomenon through a multidimensional statistical technique. This is a secondary analysis based on the Italian Oncologic Pain multiSetting - Multicentric Survey (IOPS-MS) . A correlation analysis was performed to characterize NP-BTcP profile about its intensity, number of episodes per day, and type. The Multidimensional Correspondence Analysis (MCA) determined the identification of 4 groups (Phenotypes). A univariate analysis was performed to assess differences between the 4 Phenotypes and selected covariates. The four phenotypes represent the hierarchical classification according to the status of NP-BTcP: from the best (Phenotype 1) to the worst (Phenotype 4). The univariate analysis found a significant association between the onset time >10 min in the Phenotype 1 (37.3%) vs. the onset ≤ 10 min in Phenotype 4 (74.2%) (p<0.001). The Phenotype 1 was characterized by gastrointestinal type of cancer (26.4%) respect to Phenotype 4 where the most frequent cancer affected the lung (28.8%) (p<0.001). Phenotype 4 was mainly managed with rapid onset opioids, while in Phenotype 1 many patients were treated with oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous morphine (56.4% and 44.4%, respectively; p=0.008). The ability to characterize NP-BTcP can offer enormous benefits for the management of this serious aspect of cancer pain. This strategy can provide many indications for identifying the diagnostic and therapeutic gaps on NP-BTcP management.
Tue, 20 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: emergency health services; emergency medical services; motorcycles; health policy; cardiac arrest; response time; two-wheelers; ambulances
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:49:36 CEST)
Motorcycles can be considered a new form of smart vehicle when taking into account their small and modern structure and due to the fact that nowadays they are used in the new role of ambu-lance to rapidly reach emergency patients in large cities with traffic congestion. However, there is no study regarding the measuring of access time for motorcycle ambulances in large cities of Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to compare access times to patients between motorcycle ambulances and conventional ambulances, including analysis of the use of AED installed on motorcycle ambulances to contribute to the sustainable development of public health policies. In two hundred and seventy-one operations, it was found that the times from dispatch to vehicle (ambulance and motorlance) being en route and times from the 1669 center (center for com-mand-and-control EMS in Thailand) call receipt to arrival on scene (response time) of motorcycle ambulances was shorter than that of a conventional ambulance and the use of AED on a motor-cycle ambulance can increase the chances of survival for patients with cardiac arrest outside the hospital in public places where AEDs are not available and in all cases where access to an AED was less than eight minutes.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Adiponectin; Adiponectin modulation inducer; C-reactive protein; Metabolic marker; Sujiaonori.
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:46:08 CEST)
Unhealthy diet can lead to the development of metabolic disorders, and studies have shown strong associations between those conditions, c-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin. We report on associations between targeted metabolic markers and active nutrients from diet and Sujiaonori algal supplement (SBM), a natural adiponectin modulation inducer (NAMI) containing 60% of bioactive ulvan-rich fiber, in Japanese women. The study comprised dietary survey and intervention conducted in Kochi, Japan (2016-2017), involving 31 women who completed a dietary survey and provided biospecimen for CRP and adiponectin measurement using ELISA. Sixteen women received 3g SBM daily for one month and 15 others (controls) received 3g of corn starch. In SBM group, mean age was 23.06 (2.21) years [vs. 23.06 (1.55)], BMI was 21.11 (0.59) kg/m2 [vs. 21.43 (0.60) in controls], and daily intake of n3-PUFA [3.83 (0.24) vs. 2.21 (0.33) mg/day; p=0.042] and total fiber [364.12 (2.45) vs. 48.13 (1.57) mg/day in controls; p=0.000] were markedly higher. Furthermore, CRP was inversely associated with total fiber, total n3-PUFA, SBM-n3PUFA, vitamin D and vitamin B6, whereas adiponectin was strongly and positively associated with SBM-fiber and total n3-PUFA. Thus ulvan-rich SBM supplement, which contains ulvan-rich fiber and n3-PUFA, might be beneficial in reducing metabolic risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Age; Sex; Stroke Types; Outcomes; SEM; Tertiary Hospitals; Rivers State
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:45:13 CEST)
This study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the direct effect of sex and age on stroke types and outcomes in Tertiary Health Facilities in Rives State, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional retrospective hospital-based research that utilized specific stroke patients’ information between 2015-2019. The study obtained the sex and age, stroke type (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (No disability/disability/death) from the records. The retrieved data was Microsoft Excel (2016), then analyzed using SPSS (version 21, Amos) and STATGRAPHICS centurion (Stat Point Tech., Inc.). From the result, out of the recorded 1916 stroke patients, 1229 (64.1%) were female, while 687 (35.9%) were males. The older adults (>55 years) had more recorded cases (n=1289) than young adults (ages 18–35 years; n=77) and middle-aged adults (ages 36–55 years, n=550). The SEM results showed that age was significantly associated with stroke type (P<0.001) and outcomes (P=0.038), while sex was significantly associated with stroke outcomes (P<0.001). The likelihood of death was 1.3 times higher in hemorrhagic stroke than ischemic stroke. In conclusion, age and sex had direct effects on stroke type, while age had a direct effect on stroke outcome. Hemorrhagic stroke was more likely to cause death than ischemic stroke in the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0438.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Preeclampsia; epidemiology; early onset preeclampsia; late onset preeclampsia; twin pregnancies; monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:44:40 CEST)
Objectives: To develop a multivariate model for risk factors specific to early onset preeclampsia (EOP) and late onset preeclampsia (LOP) in our entire population (singleton and twin pregnancies). Material and methods: 20 year-observational population-based historical cohort study (2001-2020). All consecutive births delivered at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hospitalier Sud Reunion’s maternity. A standardized validated epidemiological perinatal data base. Results: During the 20-year period, there were 81,834 pregnancies and 83,555 infants born, 1232 dichorionic and 350 monochorionic twin pregnancies. There were 2120 cases of preeclampsia, of which 2001preeclamptic singleton pregnancies and 119 twin pregnancies (incidence 7.5% in twin pregnancies vs 2.5% singletons, OR 3.0, p<0.001). Independent risk factors for EOP and LOP in a multivariate model (controlling for the two major confounders: namely maternal ages -both risks for EOP and LOP- and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI – specific risk factor for LOP) were: history of preeclampsia (aOR 11.7 for EOP, 7.8 for LOP, p < 0.0001), chronic hypertension (aOR 7.3 for EOP, 3.9 for LOP, p < 0.0001), history of perinatal death (aOR 2.2 for EOP, p < 0.0001 and 1.48 for LOP, p= 0.007), primipaternity (aOR 3.0 for EOP and 3.6 for LOP, p = 0.001), dizygotic twin pregnancies (aOR 3.7 for EOP, p < 0.0001 and 2.1 for LOP, p = 0.003), monozygotic twin pregnancies (aOR 3.98 for EOP, p = 0.003 and NS for LOP), ovulation induction (aOR 5.6 for EOP, p = 0.004 and NS for LOP), and in vitro fertilization (aOR 2.8 for EOP, p = 0.05 and NS for LOP). Specific to LOP and NS for EOP: renal diseases (aOR for LOP 2.9, p= 0.007) and gestational diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.2, p= 0.04). Conclusions: Maternal ages over 35 years, chronic hypertension , history of preeclampsia, ovulation induction, in vitro fertilizations, history of perinatal deaths and twin pregnancy (in our experience, especially mono zygotic twin pregnancies) are significant risk factors for EOP. New paternity is an independent factor for both EOP and LOP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Tele-exercise; physical activity; rural; older adults; knee osteoarthritis; clinical trial
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:36:22 CEST)
Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based exercise program recommended for management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, access to EF is limited in rural areas. Accordingly, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered EF in rural, community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee OA. A single arm pilot trial of remotely delivered EF classes was conducted. Videoconferencing was used to livestream the instructor-led, 1-hour EF classes 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. A total of 15 participants were enrolled with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67-75) and 14 (93%) were women. Median EF class attendance rate was 91% (IQR: 85-94%). Knee pain, as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly from baseline to 12-week endpoint (mean difference=-11.4 [95% CI:-20.9, -2.0); P=0.02). In addition, participants’ self-reported knee function improved significantly (mean difference in KOOS Function score=-11.8 [95% CI:-18.4, -5.2]; P<0.01) as well as their physical capacity (mean difference in Timed Up and Go test time=1.8 seconds [95% CI: 0.2, 3.4]; P=0.03). All participants (100%) were very satisfied with remotely delivered EF classes and there were no serious adverse events. Findings from this pilot trial indicate that remotely delivered EF is feasible and acceptable in rural older adults with knee OA.
Mon, 19 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: universal health coverage; health insurance claims; administrative data; claims database
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:38:35 CEST)
Although the universal health coverage (UHC) is pursued by many countries, not all countries with UHC include dental care as their benefits. Japan, with its long-held tradition of UHC, has covered dental care as essential benefit and majority of dental care services are provided to all patients with minimal copayment. Being under the UHC, the scope of services as well as prices are regulated by the uniform fee schedule and dentists submit claims according to the uniform format and fee schedule. The author analyzes the publicly available dental health insurance claims data as well as a sampling survey on dental hygiene and illustrates how Japan’s dental care is responding to the challenges of the population ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0404.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: tuberculosis; secretory antigens; bronchiolar epithelium; alveolar pneumocytes; M2 polarization; COX-2, FAS; Pathogenesis; early lesion
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:02:57 CEST)
Research on the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in recent years has focused largely on the granulomatous stage of primary tuberculosis. However, post-primary tuberculosis that accounts for 80% of clinical disease is seldom studied because of the paucity of animal models and human tissues. The early lesion of post-primary tuberculosis is a subclinical obstructive lobular pneumonia that develops asymptomatically for months accumulating secreted mycobacterial antigens in alveolar macrophages and highly sensitized T cells before onset of clinical disease. Here we demonstrate antigen of M. tuberculosis in the cytoplasm of ciliated bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar pneumocytes in association with elements of the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) pathways in the early lesion. This suggests a new synthesis of the pathogenesis of post-primary tuberculosis in which M. tuberculosis use its secreted antigens and cord factor to direct prolonged subclinical development of the early lesions in preparation for a sudden necrotizing reaction sufficient to produce a cavity and/or granulomas. Available evidence indicates that most successful human and animal vaccines and host directed therapies of post-primary tuberculosis target the early lesion, not granulomas. Recognition of this will facilitate design and evaluation of improved vaccines and therapies for tuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Melatonin; molecular modelling; adsorption; clays; modified drug release; molecular dynamics
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:44:04 CEST)
Melatonin is a hormone used for treating several disorders. However, its oral administration is problematic due to the variable absorption and extensive first-pass metabolism. The topical application of this drug does not present these disadvantages and can be used for therapeutic and skin protection purposes. The adsorption and release of melatonin in the montmorillonite clay was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The drug-clay interaction products were prepared and characterized, showing a modified and improved diffusion and release of melatonin. The crystal structure and spectroscopic properties of melatonin and melatonin-water-mineral materials were studied by molecular modeling, finding that the adsorption of this drug is energetically favourable, and the results were consistent with the experimental data. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with the metadynamics methodology showed the release of melatonin from the confined interlayer nanospace of montmorillonite to the liquid bulk water with a 20 kcal/mol free energy barrier.
Fri, 16 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0391.v1
Online: 16 July 2021 (17:07:29 CEST)
Population studies have demonstrated an association between sodium (Na) and po-tassium (K) intake and levels of blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol. The aim of this study was to describe the dietary intake and distribution of Na and K in Mexicans, and their as-sociation with metabolic risk outcomes. We analyzed a national survey that included 4,219 participants. Dietary information was obtained through a 24-hour recall. Foods and beverages were classified based on the degree of processing. BP and biomarkers in blood and urine were measured. The mean intake (mg/d) of Na was 1512 in pre-schoolchildren, 2844 in schoolchildren, 3743 in adolescents, and 3132 in adults. The mean intake of K was 1616 in pre-schoolchildren, 2256 in schoolchildren, 2967 in adolescents, and 3401 in adults. Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) contribute to sodium intake: 49% in preschool and schoolchildren, 47% in adolescents, and 39% in adults. Adults in the fourth quartile of sodium intake had lower serum concentrations of cholesterol (181.4 mg/dL) and HDL-c (35.5 mg/dL). The Mexican population has high Na and low K intakes. There is a relationship between Na sodium consumption and cholesterol, and LDL levels. UPF contributes to almost 40% of the sodium consumed by Mexicans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: upper tract urothelial carcinoma; radical nephroureterectomy; ureteroscopy; oncological outcomes.
Online: 16 July 2021 (16:17:14 CEST)
Background: The incidence of intravesical recurrence (IVR) following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is reported in up to 50% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). It was suggested that preoperative diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS) could increase the IVR rate after RNU, however, the available data are often conflicting. Thus, in this systematic review and meta-analysis we sought to synthesize that available data for the impact of pre-RNU URS for UTUC on IVR and other oncological outcomes; Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was performed in June 2020. Cumulative analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were conducted. The primary endpoint was intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), with the secondary endpoints being cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS); Results: Among a total of 5489 patients included in the sixteen selected papers, 2387 (43.4%) underwent diagnostic URS before RNU and 3102 (56.6%) did not. Pre-RNU diagnostic URS was significantly associated with worse IVRFS after RNU (HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.29-1.61, p<0.001) than RNU alone. However, subgroup analysis including patients without biopsy during URS revealed no significant impact of diagnostic URS on IVRFS (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.90-1.80, p=0.16). The results of other analyses showed no significant differences in CSS (HR=0.94, p=0.63), OS (HR: 0.94, p=0.56), and MFS (HR: 0.91, p=0.37) between patients who underwent URS before RNU and those who did not. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis confirm that diagnostic URS prior to RNU is significantly associated with worse IVRFS, albeit with no concurrent impact on the other long-term survival outcomes. Our results indicate that URS has a negative impact on IVRFS only when combined with endoscopic biopsy. Future studies are warranted to assess the role of immediate postoperative intravesical chemotherapy in patients undergoing biopsy during URS for suspected UTUC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Population screening; eye disease; prevalence; awareness
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Vision impairments and related blindness are major public health problems. Prevalence of eye disease and barriers to optimal care markedly vary among different geographic areas. In the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), an epidemiological surveillance on the state of ocular health in the population aged over 50 years was performed in 2019. Materials and Methods: Participants were sampled to be representative of the region inhabitants. Data were collected through a telephone interview and an eye examination. Prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, maculopathy was assessed. The Cohen’s kappa (k) was used to measure the agreement between presence of eye disease and awareness of the disease by the participants. Results: Overall, 983 people with mean age of 66.0±9.5 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, maculopathy, and retinopathy was 52.6%, 5.3%, 5.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Among the total of affected people, those aware of their condition were 21.8% (k=0.12, slight agreement) for cataract, 65.4% (k=0.78, substantial agreement) for glaucoma, 7.1% (k=0.10, slight agreement) for maculopathy, and 0% for retinopathy (k=-0.004, agreement lower than that expected by chance). Refractive defects were corrected in the vast majority of participants. Conclusion: In the Abruzzo region, about two third of citizens aged 50 years or over suffer from cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy or maculopathy, which are recognized as leading causes of blindness. Many people with eye disease do not know they have it. These data can be used by clinicians and policymakers to undertake clinical, political, and social actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Endometrial cancer; sentinel lymph node; micrometastases; ultrastaging; one-step nucleic acid amplification; OSNA; cytokeratin 19
Online: 16 July 2021 (11:57:14 CEST)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) for the detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis compared to standard pathological ultrastaging in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer (EC). A total of 526 SLNs from 191 patients with EC were included in the study. 379 SLNs (147 patients) were evaluated by both methods, OSNA and standard pathological ultrastaging. The central 1-mm portion of each lymph node was subjected to semi-serial sectioning at 200-μm intervals and examined by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry with CK19; the remaining tissue was analysed by OSNA for CK19 mRNA. The OSNA assay detected metastases in 19.7% of patients (14.9% micrometastasis and 4.8% macrometastasis), whereas pathological ultrastaging detected metastasis in 8.8% of patients (3.4% micrometastasis and 5.4% macrometastasis). Using the established cut-off value for detecting SLN metastasis by OSNA in EC (250 copies/μl), the sensitivity of the OSNA assay was 92%; specificity was 82%; diagnostic accuracy was 83%, and the negative predictive value was 99%. Discordant results between both methods were recorded in 20 patients (13.6%). OSNA resulted in an upstaging in 12 patients (8.2%). OSNA could aid in the identification of patients requiring adjuvant treatment at the time of diagnosis.
Thu, 15 July 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: wound healing; oxidative stress; antioxidant dressing; reactive oxygen species.
Online: 15 July 2021 (13:32:15 CEST)
(1) Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the preparation of the normal wound healing response. Therefore, a correct balance between low or high levels of ROS is essential. Antioxidant dressings that regulate this balance is a target for new therapies. The purpose of this review is to identify the compounds with antioxidant properties that have been tested for wound healing and to summarize the available evidence on their effects. (2) Methods: A literature search was conducted and included any study that evaluated the effects or mechanisms of antioxidants in the healing process (in vitro, animal models, or human studies). (3) Results: Seven compounds with antioxidant activity were identified (Curcumin, N-acetyl cysteine, Chitosan, Gallic Acid, Edaravone, Crocin, Safranal, and Quercetin) and 46 studies reporting the effects on the healing process of these antioxidants compounds were included. (4) Conclusions: These results highlight that numerous novel investigations are being conducted to develop more efficient systems for wound healing activity. The application of antioxidants is useful against oxidative damage and accelerates wound healing. Designing biomaterials that can scavenge excess reactive oxygen species requires new technologies and further research, especially human studies.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: predator scent; aldosterone; corticosterone; adrenal gland; dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN); serotonin (5-HT); electrophysiology
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:40:31 CEST)
Exposure to predator scent (PS) has been used as a model of stress associated with danger to life and body integrity. We tested the hypothesis that repeated PS exposure alters the excitability of serotonin (5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus. To study the mechanisms involved, we approached serum and adrenal corticosterone and aldosterone concentrations, as well as cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to PS for ten minutes daily for ten consecutive days. Two weeks after the last exposure, electrophysiological and biochemical assessments were performed. Measurements by in vivo electrophysiology showed increased spontaneous firing activity of 5-HT neurons in rats exposed to PS. PS exposure resulted in reduced serum corticosterone and aldosterone concentrations. Concentrations of both corticosteroids in the adrenal glands, as well as the relative weight of the adrenals, were unaffected. The gene expression of hippocampal BDNF of rats exposed to PS remained unaltered. In conclusion, repeated exposure of rats to PS leads to enhanced firing activity of 5-HT neurons accompanied by reduced serum, but not adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reduced corticosteroid concentrations in the blood appear to be the result of increased metabolism and/or tissue uptake rather than altered steroidogenesis. The decrease in circulating corticosterone in rats experienced repeated PS may represent part of the mechanisms leading to increased excitability of 5-HT neurons. The increase in 5-HT neuronal firing activity might be an important compensatory mechanism designated to diminish the harmful effects of the repeated PS exposure on the brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: circadian rhythms; clock genes; glioblastoma; tretament; chronotherapy
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:02 CEST)
Gliomas are solid tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that originated from different glial cells. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified these tumors into four groups (I-IV) with increasing malignancy. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor classified as a grade IV. GBM are resistant to conventional therapies with poor prognosis after diagnosis even when the Stupp protocol that combines surgery and radiochemotherapy is applied. Nowadays, few novel therapeutic strategies have been used to improve GBM treatment, looking for higher efficiency and lower side effects, but with relatively modest results. The circadian timing system temporally organizes the physiology and behavior of most organisms and daily regulates several cellular processes in organs, tissues, and even in individual cells, including tumor cells. The potentiality of the function of the circadian clock on cancer cells modulation as a new target for novel treatments with a chronobiological basis offers a different challenge that needs to be considered in further detail. The present review will discuss state of the art regarding GBM biology, the role of the circadian clock in tumor progression, and new chrono-chemotherapeutic strategies applied for GBM treatment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: histamine; histamine H1 receptor; histamine H4 receptor; itch; TRPV1; TRPA1; dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG); Ca2+-imaging
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:12:01 CEST)
Two histamine receptor subtypes (HR), namely H1R and H4R, as key components, are involved in the transmission of histamine-induced itch. Although exact downstream signaling mechanisms are still elusive, transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels play important roles in the sensation of histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch. Aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in the transmission of histaminergic itch. The potential of TRPV1 and TRPA1 inhibitors to modulate H1R- and H4R-induced signal transmission was tested in a scratching assay in mice in vivo and in vitro via Ca2+ imaging of murine sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. The TRPV1 inhibition led to a reduction of H1R- and H4R- induced itch and reduced Ca2+ influx into the neurons. The TRPA1 inhibitor reduced H4R-induced itch and both H1R- and H4R-induced Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, these results indicate that both channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1 are involved in the transmission of histamine-induced pruritus.
Wed, 14 July 2021
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cerebral blood flow and oxygenation; diffuse correlation spectroscopy; EEG; traumatic brain in-jury; neurointensive care unit; neuromonitoring
Online: 14 July 2021 (15:19:40 CEST)
Survivors of severe brain injury may require care in a neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU), where the brain is vulnerable to secondary brain injury. Thus, there is a need for noninvasive, bedside, continuous cerebral blood flow monitoring approaches in the neuro-ICU. Our goal is to address this need through combined measurements of EEG and functional optical spectroscopy (EEG-Optical) instrumentation and analysis to provide a complementary fusion of data about brain activity and function. The present case demonstrates in a patient with traumatic brain injury, noninvasive cerebral blood flow transients can be recorded that correlate with gold-standard invasive measurements and with the frequency content changes in the EEG data during clinical care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Toxic heavy metal; neurological conditions; mitochondrial dysfunction; proteostasis; environmental chemicals; phytochemicals.
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:26:40 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by memory dysfunction and the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregate in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex. The exact etiology of AD has not yet been confirmed. However, epidemiological reports suggest that populations who were exposed to environmental hazards are more likely to develop AD than those who were not. Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring environmental risk factor abundant in the Earth’s crust and human exposure to As predominantly occurs through drinking water. Convincing evidence suggests that As causes neurotoxicity and impairs memory and cognition although the hypothesis and molecular mechanism of As-associated pathobiology in AD are not clear yet. However, exposure to As and its metabolites leads to various pathogenic events such as oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunctions, ER stress, apoptosis, impaired protein homeostasis, and abnormal calcium signaling. Evidence has indicated that As exposure induces alterations that coincide with most of the biochemical, pathological, and clinical developments of AD. Here, we overview existing literature to gain insights into the plausible mechanisms that underlie As-induced neurotoxicity and the subsequent neurological deficits in AD. Prospective strategies for the prevention and management of arsenic exposure and neurotoxicity have also been discussed.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer; cisplatin; chemoresistance; molecular mechanisms
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:25:13 CEST)
Cancer cells utilize a number of mechanisms to increase their survival and progression as well as their resistance to anticancer therapy: deregulation of growth regulatory pathways by acquiring grow factor independence, immune system suppression, reducing the expression of antigens activating T lymphocyte cells (mimicry), induction of anti-apoptotic signals to counter the action of drugs, activation of several DNA repair mechanisms and driving the active efflux of drugs from the cell cytoplasm and epigenetic regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Due to the fact that it is commonly diagnosed late, lung cancer remains a major malignancy with a low five-year survival rate; when diagnosed, the cancer is often highly advanced and the cancer cells may have acquired drug resistance. This review summarizes the main mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance and in interactions between cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. It also analyses changes in the gene expression profile of cisplatin sensitive vs. cisplatin resistant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cellular model using the GSE108214 Gene Expression Omnibus database. It describes a protein-protein interaction network that indicates highly-dysregulated TP53, MDM2 and CDKN1A genes as they encodes the top networking proteins that may be involved in cisplatin tolerance, these all being upregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, it illustrates the multifactorial nature of cisplatin resistance by examining the diversity of dysregulated pathways present in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells based on KEGG pathway analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Randomized Controlled Trial; Equal Group Size; Nursing; Allocation Bias; Effect Size
Online: 14 July 2021 (10:49:38 CEST)
The manipulation of participant allocation in randomized controlled trials to achieve equal groups sizes may introduce allocation bias potentially leading to larger treatment effect estimates. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of nursing trials that have precisely equal group sizes and examine if there was an association with trial outcome. Data were extracted from a sample of 148 randomized controlled trials published in nursing science journals in 2017. One hundred trials (68%) had precisely equal group sizes. Respectively, a positive outcome was reported in 70% and 58% of trials with equal/unequal groups. Trials from Asia were more likely to have equal group sizes than those from the rest of the world. Most trials reported a sample size calculation (n=105, 71%). In a third of trials (n=36, 34%), the number of participants recruited precisely matched the requirement of the sample size calculation; this was significantly more common in studies with equal group sizes. The high number of nursing trials with equal groups may suggest nurses con-ducting clinical trials are manipulating participant allocation to ensure equal group size increasing the risk of bias.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0263.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic obstructive; patient discharge; patient care team; personalized care; interdisciplinary health team; patient safety; pulmonary disease; pulmonary medicine
Online: 14 July 2021 (09:58:17 CEST)
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require frequent hospitalization due to worsening symptoms. Preventing prolonged hospital stay and readmission becomes a challenge for healthcare professionals treating patients with COPD. Although the integration of health and social care supports greater collaboration and enhanced patient care, organizational structure and poor leadership may hinder the implementation of patient-oriented goals. This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old chronic smoker with severe COPD who was to be discharged on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). It further highlights the healthcare decisions made to ensure the patient’s safety at home and further provides a long-lasting solution to the existing medical and social needs. The goal was accomplished through a discharge plan that reflects multidisciplinary working, efficient leadership, and change management using Havelock’s theory. While COPD is characterized by frequent exacerbation and hospital readmission, it was emphasized that most failed discharges could be attributed to bureaucratic organizational workflow which might not be in the patient’s best interest. It was further demonstrated that healthcare professionals are likely to miss the window of opportunity to apply innovative and long-lasting solutions to the patient’s health condition in an attempt to remedy the immediate symptoms of COPD
Tue, 13 July 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: schizophrenia; psychosis; cognitive symptoms; neurotransmission; dopamine; glutamate; brain connectivity; pharmacological magnetic-resonance imaging; translational neuroscience.
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:13:56 CEST)
Psychotic disorders occur as a result of pathobiochemical processes in the brain, which disrupt the central neurotransmission of molecules such as dopamine and glutamate. The dopamine hypothesis, adopted more than 2 decades ago, has repeatedly asserted its position as an etiopathogenetic substrate through the action of psychostimulants and neuroleptics on the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems, giving insight into the origin of positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive impairments in schizophrenia remain not fully understood but are thought to be present during all stages of the disease, as well as in the prodromal the interictal and residual phases. Over the last decade, functional magnetic resonance imaging has focused on research of brain networks like the Default mode network, the Salience network and Central executive network, enabling a deeper understanding of cognitive deficits, as well as other phenomena such as disorganization of thought and behavior. The study of the nodes of these networks, such as the precuneus and insula, informs about their complex significant roles as structures responsible for important cognitive domains such as concentration, attention, ability to understand and reproduce information, as well as memory functions. It is suggested that the neurotransmission of dopamine and glutamate play a key role in these processes and their successful modulation in the correct brain regions through psychopharmacological and biomedical instrumental methods may lead to a significant reversal of conventional paradigms. Pharmaco-magnetic resonance imaging is a neuroimaging method that can provide the translation of scientific knowledge about the neural networks and the disruptions in and between different brain regions, into clinically applicable and effective therapeutic results in the management of severe psychotic disorders.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: granulomas, neoantigens, neoplasia, sarcoidosis, sarcoid-like reaction, tumoral antigens.
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:00:24 CEST)
There is a relationship between systemic sarcoidosis (SS) and malignancy. Sarcoidosis results from an exaggerated immune response in genetically susceptible individuals. In oncologic pa-tients with sarcoidosis, tumoral antigens and antineoplastic treatment are considered potential triggering factors. The observation of a patient with granulomas in a parotid carcinoma that later developed SS led us to review previous tumors of patients with SS. The aim of the study is to see if granulomas were already present in the tumors that preceded sarcoidosis. We identified 196 sarcoidosis patients, 47 of which had a previous tumor. We were able to review 29 cases 12 of which showed tumor associated granulomas (TAGs)(41.4%). This ratio is much higher than that of the normal population. We analyzed five control patients without sarcoidosis for each tumor. In conclusion, we have observed TAGs in patients who later develop SS. In our series, the ratio of TAGs in patients with SS was significantly greater than in the normal population. To prove our findings, we suggest reviewing the history of patients with SS in search of previous tumors. The histology of such tumors should be reviewed in an attempt to identify granulomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0279.v1
Online: 13 July 2021 (08:28:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Stunting remains a challenge in Indonesia, where 30.8% of under-five children are stunted and may never reach full potential height and cognitive function. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of stunting in Nangapanda subdistrict, East Nusa Tenggara; (2) Methods: The design was cross-sectional study located in rural area as part of PINTERMIDI UI project. We collected quantitative data on social determinants, weight, height, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum zinc, CRP, worm infection, history of deworming, co-morbidity, food security, and nutrient intake; (3) Results: A total of 196 under-five children included and 74% households were food insecure. The prevalence of stunting was 29.9% in this population (31.8% worm infection, 30.3% iron deficiency, and 28.1% zinc deficiency). Multivariate analysis showed household with 5-8 members (AOR 3.076; 95% CI 1.132 – 8.356) and unsafe drinking water (AOR 1.702; 95% CI 0.825 – 3.512) were significant independent risk factors of stunting after adjusted by child’s gender, father’s occupation, caregiver’s education, monthly expenses, sanitary facilities, and food security status; (4) Conclusions: The number of household members is the only independent risk factor of stunting among children age 24-59 months in rural area of Eastern Indonesia. Development of nutrition sensitive intervention and promotion of family planning are needed in order to increase adequate child’s care and feeding practices in rural area of Eastern Indonesia.
Fri, 9 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HPLC; NSAIDs; Isocratic; Short column; Drug mixture
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:23:57 CEST)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which block the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin, have been used for pain relief. We have developed a method to separate a mixture of three NSAIDs, such as aspirin, paracetamol, and naproxen, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). An isocratic mobile phase consisting of acidic water and acetonitrile was selected to run at a low flow rate, such as 0.8 mL/min. The mixture of three NSAIDs was injected at a low volume into a C18 column that was 150 mm in length and characterized using a UV detector at 230 nm. We identified three peaks in the chromatogram indicating the three compounds. The elution time of the peaks was less than 10 minutes. To identify multiple peaks on the isocratic flow using a short column, further studies are required regarding the proposed method to generate microfluidic devices for nanoLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Myopia; monocular form deprivation (MFD); inflammation; Fallopia Japonica (FJ); Prunella Vulgaris (PV)
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:21:52 CEST)
The increased global incidence of myopia requires the establishment of therapeutic approaches. Previous studies have suggested that inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of myopia. We used human retinal pigment epithelial cell to study the molecular mechanisms on how FJE and PVE lowering the inflammation of the eye. The effect of FJE and PVE in MFD induced hamster model and explore the role of inflammation cytokines in myopia. Expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were upregulated in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells treated with IL-6 and TNF-α. FJ extract (FJE) + PV extract (PVE) reduced IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression in RPE cells. Furthermore, FJE and PVE inhibited inflammation by attenuating the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) pathway. In addition, we report two resveratrol + ursolic acid compounds from FJ and PV and their inhibitory activities against IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression levels in RPE cells treated with IL-6 and TNF-α. FJE, PVE, and FJE + PVE were applied to MFD hamsters and their axial length was measured after 21 days. The axial length showed statistically significant differences between phosphate-buffered saline- and FJE-, PVE-, and FJE + PVE-treated MFD eyes. FJE + PVE suppressed expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. They also inhibited myopia-related transforming growth factor-beta (TGF)-β1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and NF-κB expression while increasing type Ⅰ collagen expression. Overall, these results suggest that FJE + PVE may have a therapeutic effect on myopia and be used as a potential treatment option.
Thu, 8 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: CAR-T; TCR; cancer immunotherapy; immunotherapy clinical trials
Online: 8 July 2021 (11:04:10 CEST)
Chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor (CAR-T/TCR) cellular immunotherapies have shown remarkable success in the treatment of some refractory B-cell malignancies, with potential to provide durable clinical response for other types of cancer. In this paper, we look at all available FDA CAR-T/TCR clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, and analyze them with respect to different disease tissues, targeted antigens, products, and originator locations. We found that 627 of 1,007 registered are currently active and of those 273 (44%) originated in China and 280 (45%) in the US. Our analysis suggests that the rapid increase in the number of clinical trials is driven by the development of different CAR-T products that use a similar therapeutic approach. We coin the term bioparallels to describe such products. Our results suggest that one feature of the CAR-T/TCR industry may be a robust response to success and failure of competitor products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MRI; deuterium metabolic imaging; tumor; 2H; glucose; choline
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:06:03 CEST)
: Increased glucose and choline uptake are hallmarks of cancer. We investigated if the uptake and conversion of [2H9]choline alone and together with that of [6,6’ 2H2]glucose can be assessed in subcutaneous tumors by deuterium metabolic imaging (DMI) after bolus administration of these compounds. Therefore tumors with human renal carcinoma cells were grown subcutaneously in mice up to ~0.5 cm3. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and IV infused in the MR magnet for ~20 sec with ~0.2 ml solutions containing either [2H9]choline (0.05g/kg) alone or together with [6,6’ 2H2]glucose (1.3g/kg). 2H MR was performed on a 11.7T MR system with a home-built 2H/1H coil using a 900 excitation pulse and 400ms repetition time. 3D DMI was recorded at high resolution (2x2x2mm) in 37 min or at low resolution (3.7x3.7x3.7mm) in 2:24 min. Absolute tissue concentrations were calculate assuming initial [HOD]=13.7mM. Within 5 minutes after [2H9]choline infusion its signal appeared in tumor spectra representing concentration increasing up to 0.3–1.2 mM and then slowly decreased or remained constant over 100 minutes. In plasma [2H9]choline disappeared within 15 minutes post-infusion implying that its tumor signal arises from tissue and not blood. After infusing a mixture of [2H9]choline and [6,6’ 2H2]glucose their signals were observed separately in tumor 2H spectra. Over time the [2H9]choline signal broadened, possibly due to conversion to other choline compounds, [[6,6’ 2H2]glucose] declined, [HOD] increased and a lactate signal appeared, reflecting glycolysis. Metabolic maps of all 2H compounds were reconstructed from high resolution DMIs. As choline infusion and glucose DMI is feasible in patients, their simultaneous detection has clinical potential for tumor characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chaga (Inonotus obliquus); Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); myconutrients; Swiss water process (SWP); Green extraction; pH; Temperature
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:02:51 CEST)
Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Mortality rate; CFR; IFR; Case fatality ratio; Infection fatality ratio
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:00:51 CEST)
Background. January 2021 marked one year since the start of COVID-19 pandemic: it is the time of intermediate conclusions. Objective. To evaluate CFR and IFR due to COVID-19 in various countries and territories, and to study if parameters of a population age affect CFR and IFR. Material and Methods. The databases of 219 countries were collected on the Worldometers, Index Mundi, Country Meters and World Bank websites. The processing of data was divided into two parts: the first part dealt with the calculation and analysis of CFR while the second, the calculation and analysis of IFR. Results. The calculations revealed that in 74 out of 219 countries, CFR was less than 1.00 %, in 69 countries it varied between 1.00 % and 2.00 %, and in 76 countries it was more than 2.00 %. The calculation of IFR revealed that in 183 countries, IFR was less than 1.00 %, in 22 countries IFR was between 1.00 % and 2.00 %, and only in 14 out of 219 countries IFR was more than 2.00 %. A correlation between IFR and parameters of a population age was found: the less median age and the percentage of 'aged' people – the less value of IFR, although, there was no correlation between parameters of a population age and CFR. Conclusion. The global health care system has gone through a year of serious trial caused by COVID-19 and appeared to have emerged victorious. In the majority of countries analyzed, the parameters of mortality due to COVID-19 were at a low level. So, there seems to be an objective basis for optimism and hope for an early end to the pandemic.
Wed, 7 July 2021
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: germline testing; NGS; breast cancer; genetic counselling; risk assessment
Online: 7 July 2021 (13:14:58 CEST)
The use of multi-gene panels for germline testing in breast cancer enables the estimation of cancer risk and guides risk-reducing management options for tested individuals and their family members. We performed an analysis in our clinical database to identify breast cancer patients undergoing genetic testing with positive reports. We reviewed positive results with respect to the different levels of information provided in the reports; risk estimation and management, cascade family testing, information from secondary findings and actionable information for treatment decision-making. A total of 415 positive test reports were identified with 57.1%, 18.1%, 10.8% and 13.5% of individuals having pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in high (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, PTEN, TP53), moderate (ATM, CHEK2, NBN), low (BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NF1, RAD51C) and with insufficient evidence for breast cancer risk genes (FANCA, FANCM, NBN, MRE11, PMS2, RAD50, RAD51B, XRCC2, MUTYH), respectively. 6.7% of individuals were double heterozygotes with two pathogenic variants. Germline findings in 92% of individuals are linked to evidence-based treatment information and receive risk estimates for predisposition to breast and/or other cancer types. The use of germline findings for treatment decision making expands the indication of genetic testing to include individuals that could benefit from targeted treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pica; iron deficiency anemia; Relationship; pregnant women
Online: 7 July 2021 (07:54:39 CEST)
INTRODUCTION. The most common cause of eating non-food items (pica) is specific deficiencies of minerals, such as iron. This study aimed to assess the relationship between Pica and Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. METHODS. The study was conducted in the out-patient department, antenatal Clinic at East Jeddah Hospital from July to September 2020. Design: A quantitative descriptive correlation design. Sample size: A total of 400 pregnant women, included anemic pregnant women, ≥ 18 years old, with singleton fetus and iron deficiency anemia. RESULTS. The mean age was 32.2 ± 6.6, half of the participants reported food cravings. Ice was the main item in pica followed by clay and chalk. Two-thirds had pica, more than half during the 1st trimester. There is a statistically significant relationship between pica and the history of a family member, parity, and gravidity at (P< 0,001, P <0,001, P <0,005) respectively. Hb and hematocrit in relation to pica reflected a statistically significant relationship (P< 0,001) and (P< 0,001), respectively. The symptoms attributed to iron deficiency were significantly associated with pica (P< 0,006). CONCLUSION. The pica and iron deficiency anemia had a significant association with pregnant women in EJH. RECOMMENDATION. The follow-up visits should integrate the food behavior inquiry to check if the pica existing with anemic or non-anemic pregnant women. Also, increase the awareness among midwives-nurses about the prevalence of pica and iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women.
Tue, 6 July 2021
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cannabinoid receptor 2; epilepsy; cAMP, M-current; anti-inflammatory
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:09:20 CEST)
Epilepsy is characterized by repeated spontaneous reactions caused by hyper-excitability and neurons firing in high synchronization in the central nervous system. It seriously affects the quality of life of epileptic patients and nearly 30% of individuals are refractory to treatment of antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new medicines to manage and control the refractory epilepsy. Cannabinoid ligands including selective cannabinoid receptor subtype (CB1 or CB2 receptor) ligands and non-selective cannabinoid (synthetic and endogenous) ligands may serve as the novel candidates for this need. Cannabinoid systems appear to regulating seizure activity in the brain through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R). An abundant series of cannabinoid analogues have been tested in various animal models, including a rat pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy, in vitro hippocampal neuronal culture models of acquired epilepsy and status epilepticus, a pentylenetetrazole model of myoclonic seizures in mice and a penicillin-induced model of epileptiform activity in the rats. The accumulating lines of evidence show that cannabinoid ligands exhibit significant benefits to control seizure activity in different epileptic models. For this reason, we summarize the relationship between brain CB2 receptors and seizures, and emphasize the potential mechanisms of their therapeutic effects involving affecting neurons, astrocytes, and microglia cells. The unique features of CB2Rs, such as lower expression levels under physiological conditions and high inducibility under epileptic conditions, make it an important target for future research on drug-resistant epilepsy.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis; hybrid hyaluronic acid; viscosupplementation; obesity; overweight.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:46:23 CEST)
(1) Background:A BMI > 25 is the most decisive, albeit modifiable,risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of intra-articular injections of hybrid hyaluronic acid (HA) complexes (Synovial® H-L)for the treatment of kneeOA in overweight patientsin terms ofdisease severity, cardiocirculatory capacity, and quality of life. (2) Materials: In this single-site, open-label, prospective trial, 37 patients with symptomatic knee OA were assessed at baseline and 3 months after ultrasound-guided intra-articular injection of hybrid HA complexes (Synovial® H-L). (3) Results: Primary variables displaying a statistically significant improvement after treatment were pain (NRS), disease severity (WOMAC), and cardiopulmonary capacity a(6-Minute Walk Test). Among secondary variables, quality of life (SF-12) improved significantly, as did analgesic intake for pain control. No statistically significant difference was observed in body fat and muscle mass percentage measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. (4) Conclusions:Intra-articular hybrid HA injections are significantly effective in improving OA-related disease severity, cardiopulmonary function, and analgesic intake. This supports the role of hybrid HA viscosupplementation as a non-pharmacological treatment to relieve pain, reduce disability and improve quality of life, and limit the risk of polypharmacy in overweight patients with knee OA.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI); neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); breast cancer; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); residual tumor size
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:40:31 CEST)
Background: The present retrospective study was designed to evaluate the relative diagnostic utility of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as means of evaluating female breast cancer patients in China. Methods: A total of 229 malignant breast cancer patients underwent ultrasound, mammography, BSGI, and MRI between January 2015 and December 2018 for initial tumor staging. Of these patients, 73 were subsequently treated via definitive breast surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), of whom 17 exhibited a complete pathologic response (pCR) to NAC. Results: BSGI and MRI were associated with respective 76.8% and 69.6% sensitivity values as a means of detecting residual tumors following NAC, while both of these approaches exhibited comparable specificity in this diagnostic context (58.8% vs 70.6%, P=0.473). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that BSGI is a useful auxiliary approach to evaluating pCR to NAC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: saliva; COVID-19 diagnosis; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:26:41 CEST)
Background. A previous study demonstrated the performance of the Salivette® (SARSTEDT, Numbrecht, Germany) as a homogeneous saliva collection system to diagnose COVID-19 by RT-qPCR, notably for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. However, for convalescent patients, the corroboration of molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in paired nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva samples was unsatisfactory. Objectives. The aim of the present work was to assess the concordance level of SARS-CoV-2 detection between paired sampling of NPSs and saliva collected with Salivette® at two time points, with ten days of interval. Results. A total of 319 paired samples from 145 outpatients (OP) and 51 healthcare workers (HW) were collected. Due to significant waiting rate at hospital, most of the patients ate and/or drank in waiting their turn. Consequently, a mouth washing was systematically proposed prior saliva collection. None of the HW were diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 positive using NPS or saliva specimens at both time points (n=95) by RT-qPCR. The virus was detected in 56.3% (n=126/224) of the NPS samples from OP, but solely 26.8% (n=60/224) of the paired saliva specimens. The detection of the internal cellular control, the human RNase P, in more than 98% of the saliva samples, underlined that the low sensitivity of saliva specimens (45.2%) for SARS-CoV-2 detection was not attributed to an improper saliva sample storing or RNA extraction. Conclusions. Then, the mouth washing decreased viral load of buccal cavity conducting to impairment of SARS-CoV-2 detection. Viral loads in saliva neo-produced appeared insufficient for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2. At the time that saliva tests could be a rapid, simple and noninvasive strategy to assess on large scale schooled children in France, the determination of the performance of saliva collection become imperative to standardize procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Asthma; meter dose inhaler; Debre Markos comprehensive specialized hospital; Practice
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:53:16 CEST)
Background: Asthma is ranked 16th among the leading causes of years lived with disability and 28th among the leading causes of disease in the world. Metered dose inhaler remains the principal route for drug administration and it has greater advantages over systemic treatment. In routine use, however, a vast majority of patients make inhalation errors. Suboptimal inhaler technique worsens health outcomes, with poor disease control, and increases the risk of hospitalization. This study aimed to assess practice metered-dose inhalation techniques and associated factors among asthmatic patients at Debre Markos comprehensive specialized hospital, East Gojjam, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from July 15 to August 30/ 2020. Data were collected through a semi-structured questioner. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Associations between dependent and independent variables were assessed by using binary and multiple logistic regressions. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant in all cases. Results presented in tables, figures, numbers, and percentages. Result: A total of 166 patients had involved in the study, of which 52.4% were females. One hundred eleven (66.9%) of participants had good knowledge of asthma and inhalational techniques with the rest of them had poor knowledge. One hundred eight (65.1%) patients had effective practice on metered-dose inhaler use techniques. Participant's knowledge regarding asthma and meter dose inhaler and marital status has a significant association with their practice of metered-dose inhaler techniques with P-value 0.001 and 0.006 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, most participants are suffering from asthma for a long duration and they have repeated exacerbation. Around two-thirds of patients had good knowledge regarding asthma and meter dose inhaler and practice on metered-dose inhaler techniques. Participants who had poor knowledge and who were unmarried had poor practice on tech metered-dose inhaler techniques. Health education and counseling services should be consistently provided to the clients regarding the proper steps of inhalers use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Nutrigenomics; nutrigenentics; microbiota; nutraceutics; chrononutrition
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:36:57 CEST)
Nutrigenetics concerns individual differences in the reaction to food based on the genetic factors. Nutrigenomics analyses direct influences of nutrients on gene expression. Both terms are explained in our review article. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and of new ‘omic’ technologies. It is often difficult to appreciate their relevance in the practice of preventive approaches for optimizing health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This paper represents a review about the current research on Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics, and provide scientific data for a new integrated clinical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Neoadjuvant therapy; Soft tissue tumor; Sarcoma; Tail sign; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Hyperthermia; Surgery
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:25:42 CEST)
Several types of soft tissue sarcomas have peripheral infiltrative growth characteristics called tail-like lesions. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for tumors with tail-like lesions has not been elucidated. From 2012 to 2019, we analyzed 36 patients with soft tissue sarcoma with tail-like lesions treated with neoadjuvant therapy, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. The ef-fect of neoadjuvant therapy on the tail sign was investigated by analyzing the change in tail-like lesions during neoadjuvant therapy and histological responses. The median length of the tail-like lesion reduced from 29.5 mm at initiation to 19.5 mm after neoadjuvant therapy. The extent of shrinkage in tail-like lesion was related to the histopathological responses in the main part. Com-plete disappearance of the tail-like lesion was observed in 12 patients; however, it was not related to achieving a microscopically negative margin. The oncologic outcomes did not significantly differ between cases with complete disappearance of tail-like lesions or not. This study indicated the shrinkage of tail-like lesions did not have significant effect on complete resection or improve-ment of clinical outcomes. A more comprehensive evaluation is needed to elaborate on the surgi-cal strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fertility preservation; oocyte vitrification; benign gynecologic disease; modified Delphi method; consensus study
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:17:55 CEST)
International guidelines are published in oncology to provide standardized information and fertility preservation (FP) care for adults and children with cancer. For benign gynecologic diseases (BGD), many recommendations are based on data coming from oncofertility studies rather than studies with a stronger and broader evidence base. The purpose of the study was to conduct a modified Delphi process for generating FP guidelines for BGD. A steering committee identified 42 potential FP practices for BGD. Then 114 key stakeholders were asked to participate in a modified Delphi process via two online survey rounds and a final meeting. Consensus was reached for 28 items. Among them, stakeholders rated age-specific information concerning the risk of diminished ovarian reserve after surgery as important but rejected proposals setting various upper and lower age limits for FP. All women should be informed about the benefit/risk balance of oocyte vitrification, in particular about the likelihood of live birth according to age. FP should not be offered in rASRM stages I and II endometriosis without endometriomas. These guidelines could be useful for gynecologists to identify situations at risk of infertility and to better inform women with BGDs who might need personalized counseling for FP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anesthesia; Anxiety; Regional anaesthesia; Music Therapy
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:15:16 CEST)
In this study, the effects of music therapy on anxiety for patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room was succinctly investigated. This investigation was largely based on the adapted Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), of patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room. A randomized control trial was performed on 90 patients due for surgery. The selected patients for regional anaesthesia were allocated to either the music therapy group who listened to music using headphones for the entire surgery or the no-treatment control group. Based on the findings, it has been conclusively demonstrated that music can decrease the patient's anxiety level. According to the socio-demographic evaluation, elderly patients have the highest stress hormones levels when compared to young patients. Although elderly patients are more likely to choose religious songs to help them relax, cortisol analysis revealed an increase in cortisol levels among the elderly compared with younger patients. As a result, music is especially important to be delivered to elderly patients. Nonetheless, there is no restriction against administering music to elderly patients because evidence from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) has shown that music helps to shift their attention away from pain and complications and makes them feel tranquil. Similarly, the HADS and modified Spielberger STAI (STAI-S) analyses demonstrate a substantial outcome for both groups, with respondents responding positively. The study found that listening to music during regional anaesthesia might help people feel less worried.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: peri-implantitis; electrolytic cleaning; air abrasive; augmentation; long term
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:06:56 CEST)