Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ascorbate; Pars Plana Vitrectomy; Open Angle Glaucoma; Oxidative Stress; Vitreous Me-tabolism 0. How to Use This Template
Online: 20 October 2020 (18:52:53 CEST)
Ascorbate; Pars Plana Vitrectomy; Open Angle Glaucoma; Oxidative Stress; Vitreous Me-tabolism 0. How to Use This Template
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; vitamin C; ascorbate; colds; pneumonia; sepsis; immunonutrition; supplementation
Online: 20 October 2020 (10:51:24 CEST)
There are limited proven therapies for the treatment of COVID-19. Vitamin C’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, make it a potential therapeutic candidate, both for the prevention and amelioration of COVID-19 infection, and as an adjunctive therapy in the critical care of COVID-19, supporting anti-inflammatory treatment. This literature review focuses on vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections including COVID-19; the mechanism of action in infectious disease and adrenal function supporting the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticosteroids: its role in preventing and treating colds and pneumonia and its role in treating sepsis and COVID-19. The evidence to date indicates that oral vitamin C (2-8g/d) may reduce incidence and duration of respiratory infections and intravenous vitamin C (2-24g/d) has been shown to reduce mortality, Intensive Care Unit and hospital stays, time on mechanical ventilation in severe respiratory infections. Further trials are urgently warranted. Given the favourable safety profile and low cost of vitamin C, and frequency of vitamin C deficiency in respiratory infections it may be worthwhile testing patients’ vitamin C status and treating accordingly with intravenous use within ICUs and orally with doses between 2 and 8g/day in hospitalised and infected persons.
Mon, 19 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral change; public health; Sars-CoV-2; alcohol consumption
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:09:18 CEST)
(1) Background: A global pandemic due to COVID-19 emerged in November 2019 and hit France in early March 2020. It not only resulted in a loss of lives but also in very strict confinement measures. The objective of this study was to understand what the determinants of the change in participants’ behavior and mental state were during the confinement. (2) Methods: An online survey was launched on April 23rd, 2020, and closed on May 7th, 2020. The final sample included 1454 participants from 24 to 65 years old. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were then performed. (3) Results: 28.7% reported having a more balanced diet, against 17.1% with a less balanced diet. 22.7% of respondents reported an increased alcohol consumption, as opposed to only 12.2% declaring a decrease and 11.2% of respondents increased their tobacco consumption, while 6.3% decreased it. 50.6% of the participants reported being more depressed, stressed, or irritable since the beginning of the lockdown. Confinement had a negative effect on every behavior studied in this survey, except for nutrition. We also found that negative mental state changes were strongly associated with nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and alcohol consumption changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; detection of bacteria in chronic wounds, chronic wounds, clinical decision support; diagnostic pathway; joint commission; fluorescence imaging; wound clinic
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:35:25 CEST)
Background: In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) warned of an emerging world-wide crisis of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In response, government and professional organizations recommended that health care systems adopt antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). In the United States, the Centers for Medicare Services (CMS) mandated antimicrobial stewardship in the hospital inpatient setting. Effective January 1, 2020, the Joint Commission required ambulatory centers that prescribe antibiotics, such as wound centers, to institute an ASP. Chronic wounds often remain open for months, during which time patients may receive multiple courses of antibiotics and numerous antimicrobial topical treatments. The wound clinician plays an integral role in reducing antimicrobial resistance in the outpatient setting: antibiotics prescribed for skin and soft tissue infections are among the most common in an outpatient setting. One of the most challenging aspects of antimicrobial stewardship in treating chronic wounds is the inaccuracy of bacterial and infection diagnosis. Methods: Joint Commission lists five elements of performance (EP): (1) Identifying an antimicrobial stewardship leader, (2) establishing an annual antimicrobial stewardship goal, (3) implementing evidence-based practice guidelines related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal, (4) providing clinical staff with educational resources related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal, and (5) collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal. This article focuses on choosing and implementing an evidence-based ASP goal for 2020. Discussion: Clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of fluorescence imaging (MLiX) to detect clinically significant levels of bacteria in chronic wounds. Combined with clinical examination of signs and symptoms of infection, the MLiX procedure improves the clinician’s ability to diagnose infection and can guide antimicrobial use. In order to satisfy the elements of performance, the MLiX procedure was incorporated into the annual ASP goal for several wound care centers. Clinicians were educated on the fluorescence imaging device and guidelines were instituted. Collection of antimicrobial utilization data is underway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fungi; ergosterol pathway; dermatophytes; chelerythrine; sanguinarine
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:10:30 CEST)
The ergosterol pathway is a prime antifungal target. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay is a simple research tool that determines the lowest concentration at which a novel antimicrobial with limited scope to determine the mechanism of action for a drug. In this study, we show that by adding hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative stressor, or glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant, to modify a commonly performed MIC assay allowed us to screen selectively for new antifungal drugs that target ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi. A human pathogen, Microsporum gypseum, was used as a test organism. When exposed to ergosterol targeting drugs, the hydrogen peroxide treatment significantly decreased fungal survival by reducing ergosterol in the cell wall, whereas GSH increased survival of M. gypseum. Further, by performing a series of experiments with M. gypseum, it was determined that the oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide causes cell death at different developmental stages. These findings allow us to describe a simple, high-throughput method for simultaneously screening new antifungal drugs for activity and effects on the ergosterol pathway. By using this tool, two isoquinoline alkaloids were discovered to be potent inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis by reducing the amount of ergosterol without affecting the expression of 1,3-β-glucan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Reflux; Laryngopharyngeal; Gastroesophageal; Primary Care; Physician; Mangement; General; Treatment; Diagnosis.
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:32:33 CEST)
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a prevalent disease in the general population and may have acute or chronic clinical presentation. LPR may be misdiagnosed in primary care medicine regarding the lack of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and the lack of findings at the gastrointestinal endoscopy. Depending on the physician field of expertise and experience, LPR may be clinically over- or under-diagnosed. The management of LPR is possible in primary care medicine but primary care physician has to consider some red flags that requires to address the patient to otolaryngologist or gastroenterologist. The use of patient-reported outcome questionnaire such as reflux symptom score-12 and the consideration of some oral and pharyngeal findings visualized through the mouth opening may help the primary care physician to evaluate the LPR findings at the diagnosis time and throughout treatment. In this review, we provide a practical algorithm of management of LPR for primary care physician or other specialists that cannot perform fiberoptic examination. In this algorithm, physician has to exclude some confounding conditions such as allergy or other causes of pharyngolaryngitis and red flags. Physician may prescribe an empirical treatment based on diet and behavioral changes with or without medication, depending on the complaint severity of the patient. In case of prescription of medication, proton pump inhibitors and alginate have to be considered in association to protect the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa from acid, weakly acid and alkaline pharyngeal reflux events.
Fri, 16 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: reproductive health; infertility; big data; Machine Learning; AI; Systems Biology
Online: 16 October 2020 (15:41:50 CEST)
Advances in machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are transforming the way we treat patients in ways not even imagined a few years ago. Cancer research is at the forefront of this movement. Infertility, though not a life-threatening condition, affects around 15% of couples trying for a pregnancy. Increasing availability of large datasets from various sources creates an opportunity to introduce ML and AI into infertility prevention and treatment. At present in the field of assisted reproduction, very little is done in order to prevent infertility from arising, with the main focus put on treatment when often advanced maternal age and low ovarian reserve make it very difficult to conceive. A shift from this disease-centric model to a health centric model in infertility is already taking place with more emphasis on the patient as an active participator in the process. Poor quality and incomplete data as well as biological variability remain the main limitations in the widespread and reliable implementation of AI in the field of reproductive medicine. That said, one of the areas where this technology managed to find a foothold is identification of developmentally competent embryos. More work is required however to learn about ways to improve natural conception, the detection and diagnosis of infertility, and improve assisted reproduction treatments (ART) and ultimately, develop clinically useful algorithms able to adjust treatment regimens in order to assure a successful outcome of either fertility preservation or infertility treatment. Progress in genomics, digital technologies and advances in integrative biology has had a tremendousimpact on research and clinical medicine. With the rise of ‘big data’, artificial intelligence, and the advances in molecular profiling, there is an enormous potential to transform not only scientific research progress, but also clinical decision making towards predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. In the field of reproductive health, there is now an exciting opportunity to leverage these technologies and develop more sophisticated approaches to diagnose and treat infertility disorders. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis and interpretation of different innovation forces that are driving the emergence of a system approach to the infertility sector. Here we discuss recent influential work and explore the limitations of the use of Machine Learning models in this rapidly developing area.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acquired Coagulation Disorders; Arterial thrombosis; prophylaxis; diagnosis; and treatment; Infections in immunocompromised hosts; Viral Infection; Venous thromboembolism; prophylaxis; diagnosis; treatment
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:09:23 CEST)
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted within the OSF HealthCare System in Peoria, Illinois. The objectives were to determine the incidence of acute VTE and ACS within one year of CMV testing. The “study group” included patients with positive CMV IgM or positive CMV Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The “seropositive control” group included patients with positive CMV IgG and negative IgM. The “seronegative control” group included patients with negative CMV IgG and IgM, or negative PCR. Results: Within one year of CMV infection, 38 of 379 patients (10.0%) developed VTE in the study group compared to 41 of 1334 patients (3.1%) in the seropositive control and 37 of 1249 (3.0%) in the seronegative control. Adjusting for age and gender, both control groups were less likely to have VTE than the study group within one year (Seropositive Control: OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5, p <0.0001; Seronegative Control: OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6, p <0.0001). ACS was more likely to occur in the study group, with incidence of 7.7% compared to 4.7% (p <0.0001) in the seropositive control and 1.9% (p <0.0001) in the seronegative control. Adjusting for age and gender, the seronegative control was less likely to develop ACS than the study group within one year (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p = 0.003). Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that CMV infection may be a significant risk factor for VTE and ACS.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: opioids; barbiturates; stimulants; veterinarian; pentobarbital
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:05:36 CEST)
Objective: To evaluate the changing pattern of distribution of Schedule II and III opioids, barbiturates, and stimulants to veterinary educational institutions in the United States. Design: Longitudinal study. Sample: Veterinary teaching institutions that use Schedule II and III drugs. Procedures: Distribution of controlled substances to veterinary teaching institutions was obtained from the Drug Enforcement Administration’s Automated Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) for opioids (e.g. methadone, fentanyl, codeine), barbiturates (pentobarbital, butalbital), and stimulants (amphetamine, methylphenidate, lisdexamfetamine) from 2006 - 2019. Opioids were converted to their morphine milligram equivalents (MME) for evaluation over time. Results: Controlled substance distribution to veterinary schools exhibited dynamic, and agent specific, changes. The total MME for eleven opioids peaked in 2013 and decreased by 17.3% in 2019. Methadone accounted for two-fifths (42.3%) and fentanyl over one-third (35.4%) of the total MME in 2019. Pentobarbital distribution was greatest by weight of all substances studied and peaked in 2011 at 69.4 kg. Stimulants underwent a pronounced decline and were very modest by 2014. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Opioids by total MME in veterinary teaching practice have undergone more modest changes than opioids used with humans. Hydrocodone, codeine and recently fentanyl use have declined while methadone increased. Stimulant distribution decreased to become negligible. Together, this pattern of findings warrant continued monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment; metabolic pathway
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:00:41 CEST)
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has long been viewed as the first-line chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, many patients with UC have been classified as “cisplatin-ineligible patient”, which requires alternative chemotherapy due to their poor responses. In fact, vast majority of those who initially responded to cisplatin-based chemotherapy eventually progressed. Understanding of UC tumor immunology provided an immunopathogenic bases for immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, to treat cisplatin ineligible metastatic UC and patients with platinum-refractory metastatic UC. In 2020, data from the trail further showed that PD-L1 inhibitors benefit prolonged survival and progression-free survival as maintenance therapy. Besides immune-targeting therapies, manipulation of tumor microenvironment via metabolic pathways alternation, such as inhibiting tumor glycolysis, lactate accumulation and exogenous glutamine uptake, has been investigated in the past few years. In this comprehensive review, we started by introducing traditional chemotherapy of UC, and summarized current evidences supporting the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and highlighted ongoing clinical trials. Lastly, we reviewed the tumor metabolic characteristic and the anti-tumor treatments targeting metabolic pathways.
Thu, 15 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Public Health; Lockdowns; Cost-benefit analysis
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:02:58 CEST)
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic in 2020. In response, most countries in the world implemented lockdowns, restricting their population’s movements, work, education, gatherings, and general activities in attempt to ‘flatten the curve’ of COVID-19 cases. The public health goal of lockdowns was to save the population from COVID-19 cases and deaths, and to prevent overwhelming health care systems with COVID-19 patients. In this narrative review I explain why I changed my mind about supporting lockdowns. First, I explain how the initial modeling predictions induced fear and crowd-effects [i.e., groupthink]. Second, I summarize important information that has emerged relevant to the modeling, including about infection fatality rate, high-risk groups, herd immunity thresholds, and exit strategies. Third, I describe how reality started sinking in, with information on significant collateral damage due to the response to the pandemic, and information placing the number of deaths in context and perspective. Fourth, I present a cost-benefit analysis of the response to COVID-19 that finds lockdowns are far more harmful to public health than COVID-19 can be. I close with some suggestions for moving forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ionised Magnesium; Preoperative Medicine; ICU; Dysmagnesemia
Online: 15 October 2020 (15:08:40 CEST)
Monitoring and measuring magnesium (Mg) values are essential to prevent the development of numerous complications in perioperative medicine and critically ill patients. Although previous studies suggest that measuring free ionized magnesium (iMg) is more useful for estimating Mg status, clinicians currently rely on measurement of total serum magnesium to determine if supplemental magnesium is needed. In this review, we analyzed the recent literature to decide whether it is better to measure ionized serum Mg or total serum Mg when assessing magnesium status, whether iMg predicts clinical outcome, and what are the difficulties in measuring serum iMg levels in intensive care patients and perioperative medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fat; obesity; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:53:54 CEST)
Background: Overweight and obese adults seek effective exercise interventions to reduce accumulated fat, but the effectiveness of these interventions vary across studies. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in overweight and obese adults based on measurement of accumulated fat distributions. (2) Methods: Databases were used to select eligible studies for this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a control and experimental group were included. Degrees of effectiveness of exercise interventions were computed to assess the benefits on reducing weight and subcutaneous, visceral, and ectopic fat accumulation. (3) Results: A total of twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. Participation in exercise interventions showed beneficial effects in reducing weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat. The effectiveness of exercise interventions on ectopic fat accumulation could not be assessed due to the limited number of studies measuring ectopic fat. Additionally, effectiveness of exercise interventions that depended on measurements of accumulated fat varied. The average exercise intervention for overweight and obese individuals was moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week, 50 minutes per session, and 22 weeks duration. (4) Conclusions: Participating in exercise interventions has favorable effects on reducing weight and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: clinically isolated syndrome; multiple sclerosis; cognition; neuropsychology; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:15:44 CEST)
To assess cognitive impairment and affective symptoms and their association with damage to normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), we compared neuropsychological test scores between patients with CIS and healthy controls, and examined correlations between these and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) outcomes in patients with CIS. Forty patients with CIS and 40 healthy participants were tested with the set of neuropsychological tests, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Single-voxel 1H-MRS was performed on frontal and parietal NAWM of patients with CIS to assess ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), and choline (Cho), as well as mI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. Patients with CIS had lower cognitive performance, higher scores for the BDI and anxiety subscale of HADS than healthy controls. There were significant correlations between the following neuropsychological tests and metabolic ratios in the frontal NAWM: Stroop Color-Word Test and Cho/Cr, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and mI/Cr as well as NAA/mI, Go/no-go reaction time and NAA/Cho as well as NAA/mI, Californian Verbal Learning Test and NAA/Cr. BDI scores were related to frontal NAA/mI and parietal NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios, whereas HADS-depression scores were associated with frontal NAA/Cr and NAA/mI, and parietal NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. HADS-anxiety correlated with parietal NAA/Cr ratio. This study suggests that neurochemical changes in the NAWM assessed with single-voxel 1H-MRS are associated with cognitive performance and affective symptoms in patients with CIS.
Wed, 14 October 2020
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; children; household; contact tracing
Online: 14 October 2020 (13:33:49 CEST)
We analyzed the characteristics of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected children during lock-down period in Catalonia (Spain), and their transmission role within the households. Among 295 traced household contacts of 89 pediatric patients, children were classified as final index cases in only 3.4% of the traced homes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cystathionine gamma-lyase; Hydrogen sulfide; Hypoxia; HUVECs
Online: 14 October 2020 (13:10:40 CEST)
Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) is one of the essential H2S-producing enzymes, and it regulates diverse functions in connection with cardiovascular function. It is crucial how exogenous H2S regulates CSE expression of the vascular endothelial cell during hypoxia. We examined the transcription and expression of CSE in HUVECs regulated by exogenous H2S with 100 μM during hypoxia by Luciferase assay, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-qPCR. Exogenous H2S influenced on the promoter activity of CSE in HUVECs during hypoxia. The effects of 100 μM H2S on CSE mRNA expression in HUVECs is decreased compared with 0 μM H2S. The consequences of 100 μM H2S on the expression level of CSE protein in HUVECs at two h of hypoxia is reduced compared with 0 μM H2S. These findings suggest that vascular endothelial cells can respond to the signals of hypoxia in the blood, and can respond to changes in H2S concentration in the blood, thus affect the blood vessels themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Earwax; Glucose; Glycated Haemoglobin; Diabetes; diagnosis
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:52:13 CEST)
Increased chronic glucose is associated with pandemic diseases. To date, there is not a practical, as well as accurate sample for reflecting that level. We measured earwax glucose in 37 controls. They provided standard serum samples, Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) and earwax samples on two time-points, one month a part. The specimens measured baseline fasting glucose, a follow-up postprandial glucose level and a between sample chronic glucose, calculated using the average level on the two occasions. The baseline earwax sample was obtained using a clinical method and the follow-up using a novel self-sampling earwax device. The earwax analytic time was significantly faster using the novel device in comparison to the clinical use of the syringe. Earwax accurately reflected glucose at both assessments with stronger correlations than HbA1c. Follow-up postprandial concentrations were more significant than their respective fasting baseline concentrations, reflecting differences in fasting and postprandial glycaemia and more efficient standardisation at follow up. Earwax demonstrated to be more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting systemic fasting, postprandial and long-term glucose levels and immune by confounders. Earwax glucose was approximately 60% more predictable than HbA1c in reflecting glycaemia over a month. The self-sampling device provided a sample that might accurately reflect chronic glycaemia.
Tue, 13 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: psychiatry; major depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; antioxidants; oxidative stress
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:07:26 CEST)
Psychiatry remains in a permanent state of crisis, which fragmented psychiatry from the field of medicine. The crisis in psychiatry is evidenced by the many different competing approaches to psychiatric illness including psychodynamic, biological, molecular, pan-omics, precision, cognitive and phenomenological psychiatry, folk psychology, mind-brain dualism, descriptive psychopathology, and postpsychiatry. The current “gold standard” DSM/ICD taxonomies of mood disorders and schizophrenia are unreliable and preclude to employ a deductive reasoning approach. Therefore, it is not surprising that mood disorders and schizophrenia research was unable to revise the conventional classifications and did not provide more adequate therapeutic approaches. The aim of this paper is to explain the new nomothetic network psychiatry (NNP) approach, which uses machine learning methods to build data-driven causal models of mental illness by ensembling risk-resilience, adverse outcome pathways (AOP), cognitome, brainome, symptomatome, and phenomenome latent scores in a causal model. The latter may be trained, tested and validated with Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. This approach not only allows to compute pathway-phenotypes or biosignatures, but also to construct reliable and replicable nomothetic networks, which are, therefore, generalizable as disease models. After integrating the validated feature vectors into a well-fitting nomothetic network, clustering analysis may be applied on the latent variable scores of the R/R, AOP, cognitome, brainome, and phenome latent vectors. This pattern recognition method may expose new (transdiagnostic) classes of patients which if cross-validated in independent samples may constitute new (transdiagnostic) nosological categories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diarrhoea; Antibiotic Management; Over-the-counter; Nutraceuticals; Feasibility RCT; Alternative therapy; Turmeric (curcumin -active ingredient)
Online: 13 October 2020 (12:26:55 CEST)
Background: Although rarely indicated, antibiotics are commonly used for acute diarrhoea in China. We conducted a randomized, double blind exploratory clinical trial of loperamide, berberine and turmeric for treatment of acute diarrhoea. Methods: Adults with acute uncomplicated diarrhoea were randomized to 4 groups: (A) loperamide; (B) loperamide and berberine; (C) loperamide and turmeric; (D) loperamide, berberine and turmeric. All participants were given rescue ciprofloxacin for use after 48 hours if symptoms worsened or were unimproved. Primary endpoints were feasibility and ciprofloxacin use during the 2 week follow-up period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted following recruitment. Results: Only 21.5% (278/1295) of patients screened were deemed eligible, and 49% (136/278) of these consented and entered into the final analysis. Most participants had mild symptoms, because most patients with moderate or severe symptoms wanted to be given antibiotics. Follow-up was good (94% at 2 weeks). Only two participants used rescue antibiotics compared to 65% of acute diarrhoea patients in the hospital during the recruitment period. The median symptom duration was: 14 hours in group B (IQR 10-22), 16 hours in group D (IQR 10-22), 18 hours in group A (IQR 10-33), 20 hours in group C (IQR 16-54). Re-consultation rates were low. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Most interviewed participants said the treatment was effective. Conclusion: Although recruitment was challenging because of widespread expectations for antibiotics, patients with mild diarrhoea accepted to try an alternative. This therapy requires further evaluation in a fully powered, randomised controlled trial among a broader sample.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Solidago vigaurea L.; European goldenrod; Asteraceae; ethnomedicinal; phytochemistry; distribution; pharmacological activity
Online: 13 October 2020 (11:38:26 CEST)
Solidago virgaurea L. (European goldenrod, Woundwort), Asteraceae, is a familiar medicinal plant in Europe and other parts of the world, widely used and among the most researched species from its genus. The aerial parts of European goldenrod have long been used for urinary tract conditions and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the traditional medicine of different peoples. Its main chemical constituents are flavonoids (mainly derived from quercetin and kaempferol), C6-C1 and C6-C3 compounds, terpenes (mostly from the essential oil), and a large number of saponin molecules (mainly virgaureasaponins and solidagosaponins). Published research on its potential activities is critically reviewed here: antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, spasmolitic, antihypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasite, cytotoxic and antitumor, antimutagenic, antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and antisenescence. The evidence concerning its potential benefits is mainly derived from non-clinical studies, some effects are rather modest, whereas others are more promising, but need more confirmation in both non-clinical models and clinical trials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cytomegalovirus (CMV); definitions of cytomegalovirus disease; logarithmic phase infection; innate immune response; CD14; monocytes; nonclassical monocytes; HLA-DR; adaptive immune response; interferon; monocytosis
Online: 13 October 2020 (08:52:11 CEST)
It has recently been discovered that mere cell contact by human cytomegalovirus (CMV) particles leads to profound modulation of cellular gene expression. Reduced monocyte human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) expression is a novel biomarker of severity and outcome in many diseases. Modulation of CD14 protein by CMV was shown in vitro, but little is known about the phenomenon in vivo (during active cytomegalovirus disease). Therefore, we investigated monocyte CD14 and HLA-DR expression in CMV infected patients in relation to logarithmic phase of infectious process. Samples from patients with active CMV replication (exponential growth of CMV viremia) were tested. After CD45/SSC gating monocyte CD14 and HLA-DR expression were determined by double-color flow-cytometry. Significant monocytosis and poor correlation between CMV replication and CD14+HLA-DR(-) cells prompted CD14 investigation. During logarithmic phase of CMV infection increased count and percentage of CD14low monocytes were observed which correlated with viral replication in several clinical situations except when there was a rapid recovery without relapse. Furthermore, most of CD14low monocytes are HLA-DR+. The increase of CD14low monocytes is also observed under the influence of high dose of glucocorticoids (20 mg of dexamethasone). The reduction in CD14 induced by CMV and dexamethasone indicates that the monocyte balance is disturbed between the classical and non-classical phenotype. A high percentage of CD14lowHLA-DR+ probably gives rise to adaptive and a decrease of innate immune response. In light of the logarithmic increase of viral load (with exponent between 3,23 and 5,77), high monocytosis above 1200 / µl is a hallmark of CMV replication.
Mon, 12 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: workplace health promotion; sleep quality; sleep hygiene; sleepiness; safety; insomnia; sleep deprivation; accidents; near miss; police
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:27:57 CEST)
A workplace sleep health promotion program was implemented in an Italian police unit from 2016 to 2017. Of the 242 police officers in the unit, 218 (90%) agreed to take part in the program. A crossover trial was made in which the police officers were divided into two groups that performed sleep health promotion activities in the first and second year, respectively. The first group of officers showed significant sleep improvements at the end of the first year, while the second group had similar or worse parameters than at baseline. At follow-up, a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of sleep was reported in both groups. Sleep improvements at follow-up were associated with a marked reduction in the frequency of accidents at work and near-misses. All sleep parameters showed a significant association with injuries and near-misses in univariate logistic regression analyses. Before the intervention, sleepiness was the best predictor of injuries (aOR 1.220; CI95% 1.044-1.426) and near-misses (aOR 1.382; CI95% 1.182-1.615). At follow-up, when sleep conditions had improved, insomnia symptoms were the most significant predictors of work accidents (aOR 13.358; CI95% 2.353-75.818). Sleep health promotion can be useful in police officers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0305.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sickle cell disease; feasibility; regular follow-up; remote area; Democratic Republic of Congo
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:14:46 CEST)
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. While reference sickle cell centers have been implemented in capital cities of African countries and have proven to be beneficial for SCD patients, they have never been set up in rural areas for families with very low sources of income. Method: A cohort of 143 children with SCD aged 10 years old (IQR (interquartile range): 6–15 years) (sex ratio male/female = 1.3) were clinically followed for 12 months without any specific intervention aside from the management of acute events, and then for 12 months with a monthly medical visit, biological follow-up, and regular prophylaxis. Results: The median age of patients at the diagnosis of SCD was 2 years (IQR: 1–5). The implementation of standardized and regular follow-ups in a new sickle cell referral center in a remote city showed an increase in the annual mean hemoglobin level from 50 to 70 g/L (p = 0.001), and a decrease in the lymphocyte count and spleen size (p < 0.001). A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the average annual number of hospitalizations and episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, blood transfusions, infections, and acute chest syndromes were also observed. Conclusions: Creation of a sickle cell referral center and the regular follow-up of children with SCD are possible and applicable in the context of a remote city of an African country and represent simple and accessible measures that can reduce the morbimortality of children with sickle cell disease.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Case report; Covid-19; Critically ill; Pregnant; Invasive care
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:11:13 CEST)
In this retrospective report we present five cases of critically ill pregnant or newly delivered women positive for Covid-19 admitted to our obstetrical departments at Karolinska University Hospital. They compose 6% of eighty-three pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period March 25 to May 4, 2020. Three patients were at the time of admission in gestational week between 21+4 to 22+5 and treated during their antenatal period, meanwhile the other two were admitted within 1 week postpartum. All of them were in a need of intensive care, one was treated with high flow oxygen therapy, the other four with invasive mechanical ventilation (three with endotracheal intubation and one with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation). Age above thirty, overweight and gestational diabetes are notable factors in the cases presented. At the time of admission, they all presented with symptoms as fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest imaging with computer tomography scan was performed in each case and demonstrated multifocal pneumonic infiltrates in all of them but no pulmonary embolism was confirmed in any. Neither did the echocardiogram indicates any cardiomyopathy. Four of the patients have been discharged from the hospital, with an average of 20 hospital days. One antenatal pregnant woman needed prolonged ECMO therapy, in gestational week 27+3 she went into cardiac arrest, resulting in an urgent c-section on maternal indication. At the time of writing she is still hospitalized. In coherence with other published reports our cases indicate that critically ill pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2 may develop severe respiratory distress syndrome requiring prolonged intensive care. The material is limited for conclusions to be taken, more detailed information on symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women managed in intensive care is therefore needed.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pharmaceutical waste; Sources; Cost of disposal; Management; Impact; Pharmacists
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:34:54 CEST)
Introduction: Pharmaceutical products are inevitable for human health. Owing to the growing need for pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical companies introduce drugs annually into the market in addition to the extensive collection of existing pharmaceutical products. Households, farms, health facilities, and pharmaceutical industries release pharmaceutical waste into the environment at low concentrations through routine pharmaceutical use, damage, and expiry. The effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) on non-target species in the environment are not known. Over the years, pharmaceuticals such as diclofenac and ibuprofen in trace amounts have been detected in public water systems, ground and surface water. Unwanted medicines should be safely disposed of at a reduced financial cost to mitigate the public and environmental health risks. Lack of general knowledge of how to dispose of unused pharmaceuticals leads to improper disposal resulting in accidental toxicity, rising healthcare costs, landfills pilfering/scavenging, water supply pollution, anti-microbial resistance, and death. To mitigate such effects, pharmacists should raise public awareness about safe disposal practices. Objective: This review aims to examine the sources of pharmaceutical waste, disposal costs, secure disposal methods, the effects of inappropriate disposal, and the role of pharmacists in the disposal. Method: The information on the stated objectives was gathered from available sources through a comprehensive literature review. Conclusion: Many countries contain tons of pharmaceutical waste that are expensive to destroy. Because of improper disposal, pharmaceutical waste has been found at trace amounts in drinking and surface water. A practical, environmentally sustainable approach to pharmaceutical waste management, with policies and guidelines, and public awareness campaigns, are necessary to address the problem of safe waste disposal. The national drug regulatory bodies should conduct environmental risk assessment resulting from the disposal of unwanted pharmaceuticals. Pharmacists should facilitate extensive training on sustainable drug use and proper pharmaceutical waste disposal at all levels to reduce the risks associated with improper disposal. Reduction of pharmaceutical waste generation at each step of a drug’s lifecycle, implementing takeback options, collection at approved sites, and modern technology to treat wastewater are highly recommended to reduce the effects of unwanted pharmaceuticals on human health and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; enterococcus faecalis; dispersion; viral infection; particle size; Peyer's patch
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:09:21 CEST)
We evaluated the change in water dispersibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Enterococcus faecalis KH2) upon powderization and its influence on their efficacy. When cultured LAB are washed, heat-killed, and powdered, adhesion between LAB occurs and they form aggregation (non-treated LAB, n-LAB). However, a dispersed LAB (d-LAB) powder with less aggregates can be prepared by treating them with a high-pressure homogenizer and adding an excipient during powdering. n-LAB or d-LAB was administered to mice and the Peyer's patches in the small intestine were observed. n-LAB administration showed a high amount of aggregated LAB drifting in the intestinal mucosa, whereas d-LAB reached the Peyer's patches and was taken up into the Peyer's patches. Evaluation in a mouse influenza virus infection model showed that d-LAB was more effective than n-LAB in influenza yield of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) on day 3 post-infection, neutralizing antibody titers of sera and influenza virus-specific IgA in the feces on day 14 post-infection. Thus, the physical properties of LAB affect their efficacy; controlling their water dispersibility can improve their effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intermittent occlusion; Blood flow occlusion; Sports; Ergogenic; Ischemic postconditioning
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:42:36 CEST)
It has been demonstrated that brief cycles of ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) applied before exercise can improve performance and, IR intervention, applied immediately after exercise (post-exercise ischemic conditioning – PEIC) exerts a potential ergogenic effect to accelerate recovery. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to identify the effects of PEIC on exercise performance, recovery and the responses of associated physiological parameters, such as creatine kinase, perceived recovery and muscle soreness, over 24 h after its application. From 3281 studies, six involving 106 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Compared to sham (cuff administration with low pressure) and control interventions (no cuff administration), PEIC led to faster performance recovery (p=0.004; ES=-0.49) and lower increase in creatine kinase (p<0.001; ES=-0.71) and muscle soreness (p<0.001; ES=-0.89) over 24 h. The effectiveness of this intervention is more pronounced in subjects with low/moderate fitness level and at least a total time of 10 min of ischemia (e.g. 2 cycles of 5 min) is necessary to promote positive effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; hydroa vacciniforme; lymphoproliferative disorders; photodermatosis; sunlight; skin; ultraviolet radiation
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:30:05 CEST)
Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) is a rare form of photosensitivity disorders in children and is frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, whereas HV-like lymphoproliferative disorders (HVLPD) describe a spectrum of EBV-associated T-cell or NK-cell lymphoproliferations with HV-like cutaneous manifestations, including EBV-positive HV, atypical HV, and HV-like lymphoma. Classic HV occurs in childhood with vesiculopapules on sun-exposed areas, which is usually induced by sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, and mostly resolves by early adult life. Unlike classic HV, atypical or severe HV manifests itself as recurrent papulovesicular eruptions in sun-exposed and sun-protected areas associated occasionally with facial edema, fever, lymphadenopathy, oculomucosal lesions, gastrointestinal involvement, and hepatosplenomegaly. Notably, atypical or severe HV may progress to EBV-associated systemic T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma after a chronic course. Although rare in the United States and Europe, atypical or severe HV and HV-like lymphoma are predominantly reported in children from Asia and Latin America with high EBV DNA levels, low numbers of NK cells, and T cell clones in the blood. In comparison with the conservative treatment used for patients with classic HV, systemic therapy such as immunomodulatory therapy is recommended as the first-line therapy for patients with atypical or severe HV. This review aims to provide an integrated, overview of current evidence and knowledge of HV and HVLPD to elucidate the pathophysiology, practical issues, environmental factors, and the impact of EBV infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cervical cancer; Biomarkers; Human papillomavirus; Pap smear; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:14:44 CEST)
Cervical cancer (CC) is the most common cancer in women worldwide and is almost always associated with repeated infections by human papillomavirus (HPV). Screening by traditional tests associated with biomarker identification techniques for low- or high-grade injuries, are becoming increasingly important in diagnosis and prognosis, avoiding countless deaths. This article explores existing literature on the main serum biomarkers and the identification of biomarkers associated with the oncogenesis of HPV expression in the identification of pre-cancerous lesions and of CC for an effective treatment, with reduction of recurrence, as well as we explain strategies for the development of biomarkers based on DNA, proteins and other markers. We also describe how markers of chromosomal instability host DNA, promoting hypo- or hypermethylation of DNA, as well as polymorphisms and epigenetic events in the p53 gene. Finally, we discuss changes in gene expression using cDNA microarray techniques and changes in the expression of proteins and markers identified through mass spectrometry (MS).
Fri, 9 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Attempted; Suicide; Mental Disorders; Nursing; Preventive Health Services; Risk Factors; Social Determinants of Health; Suicidal Ideation; Suicide
Online: 9 October 2020 (15:49:51 CEST)
(1) Aims: To analyse the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics and particular kinds of suicidal behaviour and its relationship with a nurse-led suicide prevention program. (2) Methods: A 5-year cross-sectional study design. Study performed in the region of Osona (Catalonia) during 2013-2017. Suicidal behaviour was classified as suicidal ideation, interrupted self-directed violence, suicide attempt and completed suicide. (3) Results: The sample included 753 patients ─ of whom 53 died by suicide─ and encompassed 931 suicidal behaviour episodes. Men represented 38.4% of the sample but 81.1% of deaths by suicide. Mental disorders were associated with suicidal behaviour in 75.4% of the sample. 66.4% of the individuals were engaged in the nurse-led Suicidal Behaviour Case Management Program, of which 0.8% (n=4) died by suicide. (4) Conclusion: The main risk factors were female sex for suicidal behaviour, and male sex and older age for suicide. Mental disorders, widowhood and retirement were also associated with suicide. A high proportion of patients was engaged to the nurse-led suicide prevention program with a low proportion of suicides.
Thu, 8 October 2020
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ER stress; GPCR; EMT; cancer progression; migration; cancer
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:06:04 CEST)
The majority of cellular responses to external stimuli are mediated by receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and systems including endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Since GPCR signalling is pivotal in numerous malignancies, they are widely targeted by a number of clinical drugs. Cancer cells often negatively modulate GPCRs in order to survive, proliferate and to disseminate. Similarly, numerous branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) act as pro-survival mediators and are involved in promoting cancer progression via mechanisms such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, there are a few proteins among these groups which impede deleterious effects by orchestrating the pro-apoptotic phenomenon and paving a therapeutic pathway. The present review exposes and discusses such critical mechanisms and some of the key processes involved in carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: kynurenines; tryptophan; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Parkinson’s diseases; neurodegenerative diseases
Online: 8 October 2020 (10:25:43 CEST)
Earlier studies reported alterations of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The first rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan dioxygenase were observed upregulated, resulting elevated KYN/TRP ratios in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with PD. An increasing number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been identified in a population of PD. However, little is known if genetic variations of the IDO contribute to disturbance of the KYN metabolism in and the pathogenesis of PD. SNP analysis of IDO1 was performed by allelic discrimination assay with fluorescently labelled TaqMan probes and a subgroup analysis was conducted according to the age of PD onset. The frame shifts variant rs34155785, intronic variant rs7820268, and promotor region variant rs9657182 SNPs of 105 PD patients without comorbidity were analyzed and compared to 129 healthy controls. No significant correlation was found in three SNPs between PD patients and healthy controls. However, the subgroup analysis revealed that A alleles of rs7820268 SNP or rs9657182 SNP carriers contribute to later onset of PD than non-carriers. The study suggested that SNPs of IDO1 influenced the age onset of PD and genotyping of SNPs in certain alleles potentially serves as a risk biomarker of PD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cholesterol; BMI; blood sugar; psychosis; LDL; HDL; antidepressants; antipsychotics; metabolism; metabolic abnormalities, platelet aggregation
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:03:41 CEST)
Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to an inherited predisposition, a sedentary life style and the use of antipsychotic medications. Several approaches have been taken to minimize this risk but results continue to be unsatisfactory. A potential alternative is prescribing Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs decrease platelet aggregation and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with depression. We therefore aim to investigate whether there is evidence that supports the use of SSRIs to reduce the risk for CVD in SCZ. A systematic review of the literature revealed five published reports relating to the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ. Three trials assessed the influence on metabolic parameters of fluvoxamine when combined with clozapine. Two of those studies found improvements with fluvoxamine. Of the other two reports, one indicates SSRIs as a group caused minimal but statistically significant increments in total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride. The second report suggests that when SSRIs are combined with antipsychotics, the metabolic impact depends on the antipsychotic prescribed. While there are promising results, further studies are needed to establish the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: biofilm; Candida albicans; E-cadherin; Enterococcus faecalis; FISH; oral mucosa.
Online: 8 October 2020 (08:20:36 CEST)
Candida albicans as an opportunistic pathogen exploits the host immune system and causes a variety of life-threatening infections. The polymorphic nature of this fungus gives it tremendous advantage to breach mucosal barriers and cause a variety of oral and disseminated infections. Enterococcus faecalis, another opportunistic pathogen co-exists with C. albicans in several niches in the human body, including the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, interactions between E. faecalis and C. albicans on oral mucosal surfaces remain unknown. Here, for the first time, we comprehensively characterized the interactive profiles between laboratory and clinical isolates of C. albicans (SC5314 and BF1) and E. faecalis (OG1RF and 846) on an organotypic oral mucosal model. Our results demonstrated that the two species formed robust biofilms on the mucosal tissue surface with profound surface erosion and fungal invasion. Specifically, this effect was more pronounced in the laboratory isolates than in the clinical isolates. Notably, several genes of C. albicans involved in tissue adhesion, hyphal formation, fungal invasion, and biofilm formation were significantly upregulated in the presence of E. faecalis. This study highlights the strain-dependent cross-kingdom interactions between E. faecalis and C. albicans on oral mucosa, demonstrating the requisite to study more substrate-dependent polymicrobial interactions.
Wed, 7 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; Mendelian Randomization; Bioinformatics; Oral Health
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:26:14 CEST)
Latest evidence revealed a possible association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and periodontitis. We explored the causal relationship of this association through two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) in European ancestry populations. To this end, we used openly accessible data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on PD and periodontitis. As instrumental variables for periodontitis, seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a GWAS of periodontitis (1817 periodontitis cases vs. 2215 controls) and forty-five SNPs from a GWAS of PD (20,184 cases and 397,324 controls). Eight non-overlapping SNPs of periodontitis from an additional GWAS assisted in the validation of association being studied. Multiple approaches of MR were carried-out. There was no evidence of genetic liability of periodontitis being associated with a higher risk of PD (B= -0.0003, Standard Error [SE] 0.0003, P = 0.26). The eight independent SNPs (B= -0.0000, SE 0.0001, P = 0.99) validated this outcome. We found no association of genetically primed PD towards periodontitis (B= -0.0001, SE 0.0001, P = 0.19). This MR study found no conclusive evidence to support a bidirectional causal genetic liability between PD and periodontitis. Further GWAS studies are needed to confirm the consistency of these results.
Tue, 6 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0136.v1
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:41:14 CEST)
Erythropoiesis is a complex process driving the production of red blood cells. During homeostasis, adult erythropoiesis takes place in the bone marrow and is tightly controlled by erythropoietin (EPO), a central hormone mainly produced in renal EPO-producing cells. The expression of EPO is strictly regulated by local changes in oxygen partial pressure (pO2) as under deprived oxygen (hypoxia) the transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2 induces EPO. However, erythropoiesis regulation extends beyond the well-established HIF-EPO axis, and involves processes modulated by other hypoxia pathway proteins (HPPs), including proteins involved in iron metabolism. The importance of a number of these factors is evident as their altered expression has been associated with various anemia-related disorders, including chronic kidney disease. Eventually, our emerging understanding of HPPs and their regulatory feedback will be instrumental in developing specific therapies for anemic patients and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ALG13; apoptosis; cell cycle; chemokine signaling; FAM27C; genomic medicine; oxidative phosphorylation; TASOR; VEGF signaling; VHL.
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:47:30 CEST)
Published transcriptomic data from surgically removed metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples were re-analyzed from the Genomic Fabric Perspective that considers the transcriptome a multi-dimensional mathematical object, constrained by a dynamic set of expression correlations among genes. Every gene in the chest wall metastasis (MET), two primary tumors (PTA, PTB) and the surrounding normal tissue (NOR) of the right kidney was characterized by three independent measures: average expression level (AVE), relative expression variation (REV) and expression correlation (COR) with each other gene. AVE was used to determine the regulation of the genomic fabrics of ccRCC, apoptosis, chemokine and VEGF signaling pathways. REV quantified the alteration of the transcripts’ abundances control, while COR determined the remodeling of the transcriptomic networks of chemokine signaling and oxidative phosphorylation genes. The gene hierarchy was established in based on Gene Commanding Height and the Gene Master Regulators (GMR) TASOR (PTA), FAM27C (PTB) and ALG13 (MET) and DAPK3 (NOR) were identified in each profiled region. We predict that TASOR overexpression would block transcription in PTA but not in PTB, while slightly stimulating it in NOR. Silencing of ALG3 would slow-down the cell-cycle in all three cancer regions with practically no effect in NOR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Critical Care Capacity; Critical Care Transfers; Critical Care Networks; COVID-19 Critical Care Capacity; COVID-19; Patient Transfer; Inter-hospital transfer; COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:41:35 CEST)
The intensive care units in North West London are part of one of the oldest critical carenetworks in the UK, forming a mature and established strategic alliance to shareresources, experience and knowledge for the benefit of its patients. North WestLondon saw an early surge in COVID-19 admissions, which urgently threatened thecapacity of some of its intensive care units even before the UK government announcedlockdown. The pre-existing relationships and culture within the network allowed itsmembers to unite and work rapidly to develop agile and innovative solutions, protectingany individual unit from becoming overwhelmed, and ultimately protecting its patients.Within a short 50-day period 223 patients were transferred within the network todistribute pressures. This unprecedented number of critical care transfers, combinedwith the creation of extra capacity and new pathways, allowed the region to continue tooffer timely and unrationed access to critical care for all patients who would benefitfrom admission. This extraordinary response is a testament to the power and benefitsof a regionally networked approach to critical care, and the lessons learned maybenefit other healthcare providers, managers and policy makers, especially in regionscurrently facing new outbreaks of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Lead poisoning; environmental health; toxic metals; sub-Saharan Africa; environmental exposure
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:55:42 CEST)
Lead exposure is associated with poor cognitive development in children. Very few studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have studied blood lead levels (BLLs) and non-gasoline sources of exposure in children. Data from a birth cohort in Benin (2011-2013) suggested that 58% of one-year-old children had BLLs > 50 ug/L. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of elevated BLLs (>50 µg/L and >100 µg /L) among 425 of these children at six-years-of-age in 2016-18 and to compare BLLs between age one-year and six-years and study sources of lead at six years. BLLs were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression and quantile regressions were used to study potential sources of lead. The prevalence of BLLs >50 µg/L in children was 59.5% [Geometric Mean (GM) 56.4 µg/L, 95% CI: 54.1 - 58.7] at six years of age compared to 54.8% [GM 56.5 µg/L, 95% CI: 53.4-59.6] at one year of age. The prevalence of children with BLLs >100 µg/L decreased from 14.4% at one year of age to 8.2% at six years of age. After adjustment for all other covariates, consumption of peanut more than once per month was significantly associated with a 22.0% (95% CI: 4.6, 42.5) increment in BLLs at six years compared with no consumption. Consumption of bushmeat killed by lead bullets at six years was associated with an increase in the higher percentiles of BLLs (P75) compared with the absence of this source. Other potential sources of lead associated with BLLs with marginal significance were consumption of rice, paternal occupational exposure, and the presence of activity with the potential use of lead. This prospective cohort confirms the persistently high prevalence of elevated BLLs in children residing in a rural region in the south of Benin as well as the presence of multiple and continuous sources of lead. These results highlight the need for prevention programs to reduce and eliminate lead exposure in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Morphological integration; dysmorphogenesis; skull; etiogenesis; neuro-psychiatric disorders
Online: 6 October 2020 (08:29:01 CEST)
Structure - function interdependence is a universal phenomenon in biological systems. Any alteration in structural features may result in change in functions–leading to natural selection of a particular trait, or dysfunctions thereof. Many such alterations arise during the course of evolution of a species and may meticulously be traced during embryonic development of an organism. Through the theoretical construct of morphological integration, a set of phenotypic traits alter in a coordinated and integrated manner during evolution and embryonic development of an organism yielding efficient environmentally adapted physiological functions pertinent to those structures. Such integration may go awry sometimes, setting the basis for genesis of diseases. Morphological integration in human skull has been established through various methods. The brain-skull co-development is handcuffed through evolution and development, and the very basis of a neuro-psychiatric disorder could be underlying in dysmorphogenesis of the skull, its consequent effect on structures, and thus functions of the pertinent brain components. Here we propose that morphological integration in human skull may be mechanistically implied in etiogenesis of certain neuro-psychiatric disorders and should be borne in mind during clinical diagnosis and therapeutic interventions.
Mon, 5 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cleft lip; cleft palate; cone-beam computed tomography
Online: 5 October 2020 (15:18:28 CEST)
Background: Cleft lip and palate can affect the development of the maxilla, which may create a midfacial deficiency as well as an interference of the facial growth pattern and dentofacial esthetics. Objective: Estimate the chronological age of complete fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis in cleft lip and/or palate patient´s and a control group, using cone beam computed tomography images. Methods: In this retrospective study, 125 patients were enrolled (cleft lip and/or palate group (n=91); control group (n=34)). Age comparison was made with Chi-square test and a Kaplan-Meyer analysis determined the median time to reach complete fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (p<0.05). Results: The experimental group showed statistically significant differences in the median time for complete ossification between males and females (p=0.019). No statistically significant differences were found in the control group between males and females (p=0.104). The median time for complete ossification of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was, for males, 15.0 years in both groups; for females, it was 14.0 years in the experimental group and 13.0 years in the control group. Conclusions: The present study showed no differences in the ossification of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis between individuals with and without cleft lip and/or palate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: health; climate change; communication; health promotion; health education; perception
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
The negative implications of climate change for human health are now well-established. Yet these have not been fully considered into climate change communication strategies. Research suggests that reorienting climate change communication with a health frame could be a useful communication strategy. We conducted a long-term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in order to summarize the state of research activity in this area, by extent and by nature. The methodology is based on a scoping review of scientific articles published on climate change communication and health between 1990 and mid-2016 indexed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The screened citations were reviewed for inclusion and data were extracted and coded in order to conduct quantitative (e.g. frequencies) and qualitative (i.e. content analysis) analyses.Out of 2,866 identified published papers, only 24 articles were eligible for analyses. The main themes identified were effective communication of climate change (n=10, 41.7%), the role of health professionals (n=10, 41.7%) and the perception of climate change (n=4, 16.7%). We identified a large proportion of secondary research articles (n= 15, 62.5%) including reviews (n=5, 20.8%) and opinion articles (n=10, 41.7%). A significant share - 37.57% (n=9) - of the identified articles were classified as original research articles, suggesting that the number of publications in this area - particularly original research - has not grown rapidly.This scoping review identified several themes including effective communication of climate change, the role of health professionals, and the perception of climate change in the selected articles on the subject. The research literature on the communication of climate change and health is relatively recent and emerging: the first articles on the subject were published from 2008 onward only.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Domenico Scarlatti; oil painting; watch glass nails; drumstick fingers; clubbing; Pierre-Marie-Bamberger syndrome
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:56:14 CEST)
(1) Background: Little is known about the baroque composer Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), whose life was centred behind closed doors at the royal court in Spain. There are no reports about his illnesses. From his compositions, mainly for harpsichord, an outstanding virtuosity can be read. (2) Case Presentation: In this case report, the only known oil painting of Domenico Scarlatti is presented, on which he is about 50 years old. In it one recognizes conspicuous hands with hints of watch glass nails and drumstick fingers. (3) Discussion: Whether Scarlatti had chronic hypoxia of peripheral body regions as a sign of, e.g., bronchial cancer or a severe heart disease, is not known. (4) Conclusions: The above-mentioned signs recorded in the oil painting, even if they were not interpretable at that time, are clearly represented and recorded for us and are open to diagnostic discussion from today's point of view.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ependymoma; teratoma; ovarian; immature teratoma
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:43:44 CEST)
Primary ovarian ependymoma is a rare neuroectodermal neoplasm that can arise from immature ovarian teratoma. Due to the paucity of this entity, a complete molecular analysis of these tumors has not been done, thus creating a challenge for finding an effective and safe therapeutic treatment. In limited literature, patient with primary ovarian ependymoma showed various responses to an array of individualized therapies ranging from surgeries and chemotherapies. Here, we present a 38-year-old female with persistent ovarian ependymoma with molecular profile similar to traditional central nervous system ependymoma that is irresponsive to multiple cytoreduction and clinical experimental therapies. Therefore, a prompt recognition and reporting of this entity can greatly aid in expanding the understanding and standardization of therapies for this neoplasm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: India; COVID-19 pandemic; Cancellation of surgeries; Global lockdown; Low- and Middle-income country; Emergency surgeries
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:02:31 CEST)
Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown have adversely affected global health care services to varying extent. Emergency Services were also affected along with elective surgeries, which were deferred to accommodate the added burden of COVID 19 affected patients, on the healthcare systems. We aimed to assess the change in delivery of essential and emergency surgeries due to the pandemic. Methodology: A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMIC), India, conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study with 12 recruited centers. All surgeries performed during the months of April 2020 were compared with those performed in April 2019. These surgeries were stratified into emergency and elective, and further categorized based on NHS surgery prioritization documents. Results: A total of 4396 surgeries were performed at these centers in April 2019 and 1216 surgeries were performed in same month during 2020, yielding a fall of 72.3% (1216 /4396).We found a 54% reduction in emergency surgeries and a 91% reduction in the elective surgeries. Number of cesarean sections reduced by 29.7% and fracture surgeries declined by 85.3% Laparotomies and surgeries for local soft tissue infections with necrotic tissue reduced by 71.7% and 69.5% respectively. Conclusion: Our study quantifies the effects of COVID 19 pandemic on surgical care delivery in India and documents that the overall surgical volume reduced by three fourths in the pandemic period. Emergency surgeries reduced to half when compared with pre-pandemic period. Cesarean section surgeries were affected the least by pandemic, whereas the fracture surgeries and laparotomies were affected the most.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: bioflavonoids; superoxide generation; oxidative phosphorylation; translocation
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:13:08 CEST)
In present work, the effects of bioflavonoids (ginkgetin and sciadopitysin) on stimulus-induced superoxide generation, tyrosyl and serine/threonine phosphorylation of proteins in human neutrophils, and the translocation of cytosolic compounds (p47phox, p67phox and Rac) to cell membrane were studied, which were isolated from the needles of Taxus media var. Hicksii. Meanwhile, three normal flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin and isoquercetin) were involved as contrasts. The results indicated that ginkgetin and sciadopitysin were capable of concentration-dependently inhibitory effects on the superoxide generation induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). And they also suppressed fMLP- and AA- induced tyrosyl or PMA-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation and the translocation of cytosolic compounds (p47phox, p67phox and Rac) to cell membrane, which were in parallel with the suppression of the stimulus-induced superoxide generation. The effect of these compounds on the radical-scavenging was also investigated. Ginkgetin and sciadopitysin did not show remarkable effect on DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and they didn’t display the radical-scavenging activity on superoxide anion generated by phenagine methoxysulfate (PMS)-NADH system. Apparently, ginkgetin and sciadopitysin had great performance in pharmacological value and they are worthy of in-depth study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: platelet-rich plasma; regenerative medicine; platelet dosing; neutrophils; monocytes; lymphocytes; inflammation; angiogenesis; serotonin; analgesic effects; immunomodulation; rehabilitation.
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:00:53 CEST)
Emerging autologous cellular therapies that utilize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applications have the potential to play adjunctive roles in a variety of regenerative medicine treatment plans. There is a global unmet need for tissue repair strategies to treat musculoskeletal (MSK) and spinal disorders, osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with chronic complex and recalcitrant wounds. PRP therapy is based on the fact that platelet growth factors (PGFs) support the three phases of wound healing and repair cascade (inflammation, proliferation, remodeling). Many different PRP formulations have been evaluated, originating from human, in vitro, and animal studies. However, recommendations from in vitro and animal research often lead to different clinical outcomes because it is difficult to translate non-clinical study outcomes and methodology recommendations to human clinical treatment protocols. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding PRP technology and the concepts for bioformulation, and new research directives and new indications have been suggested. In this review, we will discuss recent developments regarding PRP preparation and composition regarding platelet dosing, leukocyte activities concerning innate and adaptive immunomodulation, serotonin (5-HT) effects and pain killing. Furthermore, we discuss PRP mechanisms related to inflammation and angiogenesis in tissue repair and regenerative processes. Lastly, we will review the effect of certain drugs on PRP activity, and the combination of PRP and rehabilitation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0067.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:56:02 CEST)
Introduction: Decreasing overweight and obesity prevalence requires precise data at sub-national levels to monitor progress and initiate interventions. This study aimed to estimate baseline age-standardized overweight prevalence at the lowest administrative units among women, 18 years and older, in seven African countries. The study aims are synonymous with indicator 14 of the global non-communicable disease monitoring framework. Methods: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey and administrative boundaries data from the GADM. Three Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted and model selection tests implemented. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight among adult women at national, first and second administrative levels were individually reported in each country in the form of maps and tables. Results: Substantial variation in the age-standardized prevalence of adult female overweight was noted across several second-level administrative units. In numerous locations in Tanzania, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, more than half of the adult female population were overweight and in one location in Tanzania, over 72% of the adult female population were overweight. These estimates were roughly twice the national level overweight prevalence and, in some cases, roughly 10 – 20% greater than the overweight prevalence in first-level administrative units. Conclusion: The observed overweight burden in subnational administrative units suggests the presence of an epidemic tantamount to the situation in more affluent economies. African countries lack the resources to effectively handle the fallout from such epidemic, therefore motivating the need for increased urgency in adopting WHO obesity-related intervention guidelines and implementing more rigorous studies to validate the study findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: syphilis; Treponema pallidum; congenital infection
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:28:04 CEST)
Congenital syphilis still represents a worldwide public health problem. If left untreated, can lead to fetal demise and high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, in the last decade there has been a resurgence of cases in the US. This review discusses the ongoing problem of this preventable congenital infection, vertical transmission and clinical manifestations while providing a guidance for the evaluation and management of infants born to mothers with reactive serologic tests for syphilis
Fri, 2 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: peritoneal catheter; PleurX, liver cirrhosis, refractory ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis,
Online: 2 October 2020 (10:39:07 CEST)
Background and objectives: Refractory ascites markedly worsens prognosis in cirrhosis. Large volume paracentesis (LVP) is standard treatment, but complications are common. In a randomized controlled case-series, we assessed a permanent tunneled peritoneal catheter versus LVP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Materials and Methods: Random allocation was computer-generated, and concealment used opaque envelopes. Patients were included from 01-2017 to 12-2018. Inclusion criteria were cirrhosis and recurrent ascites and expected survival of more than 3 months. Results: Thirteen patients were enrolled (PleurX =6 versus LVP =7). Seven were female, age range 51 to 80 years. No procedure-related complications occurred. Two patients died due to variceal bleeding (PleurX-group) and sepsis (LVP-group). One patient was withdrawn due to hyponatremia (PleurX-group). Two patients were withdrawn due to bacterial peritonitis and infection of unknown origin (Control-group). In the PleurX-group, all patients colonized the catheter, two developed bacterial peritonitis. The most common bacterial colonization was Staph. Epidermidis (n=4). Conclusions: In selected patients, the PleurX catheter mobilizes ascites and may be an alternative to LVP. The risk of infection should be considered in each case. The impact of colonization and risk of infections needs further investigation. Trial Registration: EudraCT: CIV-16-10-017324; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT 03027635; Scientific Ethics Committee journal no: H-1604179
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Amazonian region; ZIKV in pregnancy; Exanthematic disease in pregnancy; Torch syndrome; Abortion; Stillbirth; Mycrocephaly; Preterm delivery; Low birth weight
Online: 2 October 2020 (08:47:53 CEST)
The epidemic transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been identified as a cause of microcephaly and other neurological malformations in babies of ZIKV-infected women. This study provides a descriptive analysis, since the onset of symptoms to the delivery, of a cohort who were registered as having ZIKV infection in pregnancy, from November 2015 to December 2016. Suspected cases were registered at a referral center for infectious and tropical diseases in Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazonian region. A total of 834 women with suspected ZIKV in pregnancy were included, of whom 91.4% had confirmed pregnancy. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed ZIKV infection in 42.2% of the cohort. In 35.2% of the cohort, ZIKV was the sole infection identified. Severe adverse pregnancy outcomes (abortion, stillbirth, or microcephaly) were observed in both RT-PCR ZIKV-positive (4.96%) and ZIKV-negative (2.15%) cases. Women with suspected ZIKV infection were much more likely to have adverse pregnancy outcomes if they were symptomatic during the first trimester of pregnancy (odds ratio 10.5; 95% confidence interval 4.0–27.0; p<0.001). Among pregnant women with suspected ZIKV infection, the occurrence of symptoms in the first trimester is associated with an especially high risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Thu, 1 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pioglitazone; DPP4-inhibitor; ESRD; Cardiovascular outcome; Mortality
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:41:50 CEST)
While pioglitazone reduces insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis effectively in patients with T2DM, these benefits remained controversial in patients with ESRD. We compared MACCEs and mortality (overall, infection-related, and MACCE-related) of pioglitazone to that of DPP4-inhibitors in patients with T2DM and ESRD. From Taiwan’s national health insurance database, 647 pioglitazone users and 6080 DPP4-inhibitors users between April 1st, 2006 and December 31th, 2016 were followed from the 91th date after the ESRD certification till study outcomes, independently; withdraw from the NHI program, death, or Dec. 31th, 2017. After weighting, risks of MACCEs (10.48% vs 12.62% per person-years, [HR]: 0.85, 95% [CI]: 0.729–0.985) and all-cause mortality (12.86% vs 13.22% per person-years, [HR]: 0.88, 95% [CI]: 0.771–0.995) are significantly lower in pioglitazone group. Subgroup analysis found lower MACCEs risk in the pioglitazone users without insulin therapy (6.44% vs 10.04% [HR]: 0.59, 95% [CI]: 0.42–0.82) and lower MACCEs related death (2.76% vs 3.84% [HR]: 0.61, 95% [CI]: 0.40–0.95) in the pioglitazone group with dyslipidemia, when comparing with DPP4-inhibitors users. Pioglitazone is associated with lower all-cause mortality and MACCEs in diabetic patients with ESRD, compared to DPP4-inhibitors. These benefits were further significant in the non-insulin users and patients with dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: personalized medicine; "cyberphysical system; biocybernetic complexes; electro-biopotentials; ECG measurement; the quality of registration of an integral ECG
Online: 1 October 2020 (13:23:17 CEST)
One of the rapidly developing research areas is the creation of systems. which are commonly referred to as cyberphysical complexes. In such systems, devices and complexes interact with a completely different physical nature. The role of a person in such systems usually consists in the formation of final tasks for “artificial intelligence” and executive mechanisms. The functioning of actuators is controlled by accurate information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: debonding; Er,Cr:YSGG laser; primary teeth; RRIDs; zirconia crown
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:05:59 CEST)
(1) Background: Prefabricated zirconia crowns are used to restore teeth in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the removal of these crowns with the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser; (2) Methods: Twelve primary and 13 permanent teeth were prepared and prefabricated zirconia crowns were passively fitted and cemented with two resin modified glass-ionomer cements. Surface areas of prepared teeth and crowns were calculated. Crowns were removed using two laser settings: 4.5 Watts, 15 Hertz, 20 water/ 20 air, and 5 Watts, 15 Hertz, 50 water/50 air. The retrieval time and temperature changes were tested recorded. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tuckey’s adjusted post hoc pairwise comparison t-test; (3) Results: The average time for crown removal was: 3 minutes, 47.7 seconds for permanent; and 2 minutes 5 seconds for primary teeth. The mean temperature changes were 2.48℃ (SD=1.43) for permanent; and 3.14℃ (SD=1.88) for primary teeth. The time to debond was significantly positively correlated with tooth inner surface area and volume, outer crown volume, and the cement volume; (4) Conclusions: Use of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser is an effective, safe and non-invasive method to remove prefabricated zirconia crowns cemented with RMGI cements from permanent and primary teeth.
Wed, 30 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0756.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D in vitro models; eye research; in silico analysis; eye anatomy
Online: 30 September 2020 (15:04:49 CEST)
Human eye is a specialized organ with complex anatomy and physiology, because it is characterized by different cell types with specific physiological functions. Given the complexity of the eye, ocular tissues are finely organized and orchestrated. In the last few years many in vitro models have been developed, in order to meet the 3Rs principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) for eye toxicity testing which is necessary to ensure that the risks associated with ophthalmic products meet appropriate safety criteria and are clearly labelled. In vitro preclinical testing is now a well-established practice of significant importance for evaluating the efficacy and safety of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical products. Along with in vitro testing, also computational procedures, herein described, for evaluating the pharmacological profile of potential ocular drug candidates including their toxicity, are in rapid expansion. In this review the ocular cell types and functionality are described providing an overview about the scientific challenge for the development of three-dimensional in vitro models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0736.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: optical coherence tomography (CP OCT); cross-scattering; probes; brain tumors; stereotactic biopsy; neurosurgical guidance
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:23:55 CEST)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most promising, innovative and rapidly emerging intraoperative imaging modalities for neurosurgical guidance in brain tissue imaging, "optical biopsy", brain cerebral vascular detection, nerve fibers and white matter tracts detection. In this article, we provide a short survey of cross-polarization OCT and different types of OCT probes that can be used in routine neurosurgical practice. Through different types of probes there are multiple applications where OCT can play a highly complementary role in offering the real-time microscopic assessment and imaging of normal and pathological brain tissues. The biopsy-needle based probe for CP OCT was shown to be an effective instrument for brain tissue mapping and express estimation of tissue status as well as for detecting large blood vessels to prevent causing bleeding during biopsy sampling. The folded CP OCT probe for intraoperative use for brain tissue examination was shown as a potentially efficient sensor head for CP OCT. The probe demonstrated high lateral resolution in diffractive limited probing beam quality. The length of dismountable probe tip allows using the probe under operating microscope. Due to the designed family of specialized probes CP OCT fills in the niche of devices for express brain tissue examination in situ.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Rosemary; Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; meta-analysis; preclinical study; mild cognitive dysfunction; herbal drugs; rosmarinic acid
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:04:01 CEST)
Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment end up progressing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leading to straining burden on public health. R. officinalis long been known as the herb of remembrance and can be a potential cognition enhancer for AD. The aims of the review were to summarize the qualitative and quantitative aspects of R.O and its active constituents in enhancing the cognition. MATERIALS AND METHOD Google scholar and PubMed structured search to find relevant studies that assessed the effect of R.O extract or any of its active constituents on cognitive performance in animals. Data extraction: Following information from each included study was extracted: (1) article information (2) characteristics of study animals (3) type of intervention; type, dose, duration, and frequency of administration of R.O (4) type of outcome measure. Data synthesis: Data were analyzed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3, 2014] and meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures on all relevant tasks within the included papers by computing the standardized mean difference ps. RESULTS. 23 studies for qualitative and fifteen for meta-analysis were selected. From fifteen included papers, 22 studies with 35 comparisons were meta-analyzed. Effect sizes for intact animals and impaired animals respectively was (mean g and 95% CI 1.19 [0.74, 1.64; 0.57 [0.19,0.96]. The R. officinalis had positive effect on both groups of animals. The subgroup analyses exhibited substantial unexplained heterogeneity between studies. Mechanisms of R.O was anticholinesterase, procholinergic, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent CONCLUSIONS: R.O improves cognitive function. Limitations: Considerable heterogeneity between studies.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: clozapine; schizophrenia; early-onset; pregnancy; bipolar affective disorder; agranulocytosis; COVID-19; pharmacogenetic
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:06:26 CEST)
Background: Clozapine use is precarious due to its side effects - neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological; however, it is the gold standard in the therapy of resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and harshly underused. Objective: Our purpose is to systematically examine the most recent data regarding clozapine in order to update the knowledge in pharmacological mechanisms, therapy benefits versus side effects to optimize its use in the context of a narrow and scarce of resources pathology, with particularities in the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Data sources: We performed an accurate search in the primary sources of Databases (PubMed, BMC Public Health, Global Health, Cross Ref, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) with specific keywords: “clozapine” and “schizophrenia,” “risks” agranulocytosis” “TRS” “bipolar affective disorder” “pregnancy” “early-onset schizophrenia” “resistance”. Study eligibility criteria: we extracted information regarding drug treatment, side effects profile, and efficacy for each trial; (3) Results: Of all the searched data we selected RCT’s, C.T.’s, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses; Data were converted and analyzed in a random-effects model. We included 45 studies, centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) treatment-resistant schizophrenia, (b) use in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy - agranulocytosis, metabolic side effects, pharmacogenetic severity markers, dysmetabolic side effects, pulmonary embolism, seizure risk – (d) safety of clozapine in pregnancy, (e) clozapine resistance and ECT augmentation, (f) clozapine therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: _______(4) Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) The genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of severity so clozapine doses should be personalises for each patient based on pharmacogenetic testing; patients with a lower genetic risk may benefit from a more relaxed hematological monitoring schedule; (b) Pulmonary embolism associated with clozapine has a mortality rate of 36.36%, prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism for six months after initiating therapy is mandatory; (c) Convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping the treatment, side effect (s.e.) incidence increases with the dose, the plasma concentration of clozapine (1300 ng/ml) it is a better s. e. predictor than the dosage; (d) clozapine refractory improves up to 69% early-onset schizophrenia, assesed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (e) more pharmacogenetic studies of the Romanian schizophrenic patients are needed in relation with the clozapine therapy in order to define more precise safety margins; (f) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity generating an increased risk of pneumonia therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count and with the decrease of the clozapine dose by half until three days after the subside of the fever; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act togheder. As in the past four decades, research has failed to generate effective novel psycho-pharmaceuticals, there is an urgent need to enhance the access to clozapine for people with TRS at the worldwide level. The progress of pharmacogenetic researches, endocrinology, genetic testing - offer the psychiatrists nowadays the chance to use this drug at its highest potential in a personalized manner for every patient - minimizing the adverse side-effects.
Tue, 29 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, screening, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:12:26 CEST)
Background: Diabetes is a common non-communicable disease that is responsible for about 9% of all deaths and 25% reduction in life expectancy and nearly half of the diabetic patients are not aware of their disease. In this regard, diabetes screening to identify un-known diabetic patients is of great importance. Aims: The aims of this study were first to evaluate the performance of two commonly used diabetes screening tests that are currently recommended by the Iranian national screening program for diabetes (NSPD). Methods: The validities of the two diabetes screening tests were measured among 1057 participants older than 30 years. The studied screening tests included Capillary fasting blood glucose (CBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The golden standard for measuring the validity of the tests was venous fasting plasma glucose (VPG). Results: According to the results, the sensitivity of CBG and HbA1c tests were 69.01% and 84.5% and the specificity of the tests were 95.7% and 79.3% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.84% and 97.72% for CBG and 22.72% and 98.61% for HbA1c respectively. The recommended cut-points for CBG and HbA1c were 116.5 mg/dl and 7.15% respectively. Using these values as the new cut-points, sensitivity and specificity of CBG and HbA1c changed to 80.30% and 89.10%, and 77.50% and 94.20% respectively. Conclusions: Compared to several other countries, the performance of NSPD is relatively higher in Iran. ROC analysis suggested new cut-points for significantly better performance of NSPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Malaria elimination; Mathematical model; Human mobility; Intervention chemotherapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:42:16 CEST)
In central Senegal malaria incidences have declined from 2000 to 2010 in response to scaling-up of control measures and then remained stable, making elimination improbable. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots, using a meta-population mathematical model based on differential equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidences from 45 villages. Three approaches for selecting intervention targets were compared: a) villages with malaria cases during the low transmission season of the previous year; b) villages with highest incidences during the high transmission season of the previous year; c) villages with highest connectivity with adjacent populations. Our modeling, considering human mobility, showed that the intervention strategies targeting hotspots would be effective in reducing malaria incidence in both targeted and untargeted areas. But whatever the intervention, pre-elimination stage (1-5 cases per 1,000 per year) would not be reached without simultaneously increasing vector control by more than 10%. Targeted interventions allow increasing overall malaria control and elimination potential.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0715.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dog; ehrlichiosis; ELISA; Tick-borne; TRP19; TRP36
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:38:27 CEST)
Tandem repeat proteins of 36 kDa (TRP36) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the American (USTRP36), Brazilian (BrTRP36) and Costa Rican (CRTRP36) genotypes of E. canis in Brazil, using ELISA assays. Serum samples of 815 dogs from 49 cities from all over Brazil were analyzed. Our results showed that 33.9% of the samples were reactive to the USTRP36 genotype and 32.6% to the BrTRP36 genotype. The two genotypes appeared to occur equally throughout Brazil, although the frequency of seropositivity was lower in the south than in the country’s other regions. Co-positivity for the American and Brazilian genotypes was also observed in 16% of samples. A few dogs (n=5; 0.6%) reactive to E. canis-TRP36 genotype (CRTRP36) were also detected in the northeast and southern regions. We conclude that the American and Brazilian genotypes of E. canis are distributed evenly in Brazil, especially in the tropical region, while the temperate region in the south presented the lowest prevalence values. This study offers the first report of dogs seropositive for the Costa Rican genotype in Brazil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chronic hepatitis B; NAFLD; NASH; biomarkers; magnetic resonance technology; NAFLD therapy
Online: 29 September 2020 (10:40:21 CEST)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public problem despite the availability of effective vaccine. In the past decades, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has surpassed HBV as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prevalence of concomitant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and NAFLD, thus, reaches endemic in geographic regions where both conditions are common. Patients with CHB and NAFLD are at increased risk of liver disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to complexity of the pathogenesis, accurate diagnosis of NAFLD in CHB patients can be challenging. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and determining the disease severity, but it is an invasive procedure with potential complications. There is a growing body of literatures on the application of novel noninvasive serum biomarkers and advanced radiological modalities to diagnose and evaluate NAFLD, but most have not been adequately validated especially for patients with CHB. Currently, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD though many new agents are in different phases of development. This review provides a summary of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of the NAFLD and highlights the unmet needs in the areas of CHB and NAFLD coexistence.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Challenges; coinfection; COVID-19; dengue fever; co-epidemic; health care facility
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:12:06 CEST)
The current global COVID-19 pandemic is compounding on populations susceptible to tropical illnesses like dengue in different developing countries like Bangladesh. The growing concern is that Bangladesh is a dengue-endemic zone and the peak transmission occurs in the monsoon season (June to October). In the most recent monsoon, a total of 354 dengue cases have been confirmed until 27th July 2020, data-driven from only 41 hospitals alone. A fifty-three-year-old male patient was found to be co-infected with COVID-19 and dengue fever. Concerns arise as hospitals are increasingly denying to admit the patients. Moreover, reports of the false-positive results in dengue screening tests recorded in different countries further exacerbate the issue. These conditions could postpone the early diagnosis of COVID-19 cases and aggravate the situation. In addition, the overwhelming wave of the dengue cases would be a challenge for the vulnerable health care system of the country which is already under strain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Failure to establish and implement proper policies might lead to the dengue outbreak with the burdens of the concurrent COVID pandemic, resulting in the collapse of the health and social system, as well as the economic growth of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0698.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sugar; ultraprocessed food; addiction; toxicity; public health; non-communicable disease
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Past public health crises (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, HIV, lead, pollution, venereal disease, even COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation — addiction, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (how does your consumption affect me?). To its credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCD’s within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.
Mon, 28 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chromatin; DNA methylation; epigenetics; histone modifications; metaboloepigenetics; miRNA; therapy; type 1 diabetes
Online: 28 September 2020 (17:48:05 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune cells destroy their insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells leading to dysregulated glycaemia. Individuals with T1D control their blood glucose through exogenous insulin replacement therapy, often using multiple daily injections or pumps. However, failure to accurately mimic intrinsic glucose regulation results in glucose fluctuations and long-term complications impacting key organs such as the heart, kidneys, and/or the eyes. It is well-established that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the initiation and progression of type 1 diabetes, but recent studies show that epigenetic modifications are also important. Here, we discuss key epigenetic modifications associated with type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and discuss how recent research is finding ways to harness epigenetic mechanisms to prevent, reverse, or manage type 1 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0690.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Finland; health care personnel; psychological distress; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 28 September 2020 (15:37:39 CEST)
On March 2020 strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID -19 pandemic. A majority of the Finnish COVID -19 –patients have been located in the southern Finland and consequently cared for in the HUS Helsinki University Hospital. During the ongoing pandemic, HUS personnel’s psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. The baseline survey in June 2020 was sent to 25494 HUS employees out of whom 4804 (19%) answered; altogether 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from the baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in pandemic patients` care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences vs. 21.8% among the other (p < 0.001). While over a half of the personnel was symptomless, a group of respondents reported pandemic work –related traumatic events and concurrent depressive, insomnia and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel and PTEs were present especially among nursing staff.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; diagnosis; Health services; clinical care
Online: 28 September 2020 (14:14:02 CEST)
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST) (https://www.cost.eu/cost-actions/what-are-cost-actions/ ) - COST action 15111 - from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing fragmented knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report on the recommendations for clinical diagnosis, heath services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS (https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15111/#tabs|Name:overview).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0684.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Clinical application; dimethyl fumarate; disease; fumaric acid esters; oxidative stress; inflammation; Nrf2; disease
Online: 28 September 2020 (11:03:25 CEST)
Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are small molecules with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is the best characterised FAE and is approved and registered for the treatment of psoriasis and Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Psoriasis and RRMS share an immune-mediated aetiology, driven by severe inflammation and oxidative stress. DMF, as well as monomethyl fumarate and diroximel fumarate, are commonly prescribed first-line agents with favourable safety and efficacy profiles. The potential benefits of FAEs against other diseases that appear pathogenically different but share the pathologies of oxidative stress and inflammation are currently investigated.
Sun, 27 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fenugreek; Alzheimer’s disease; nootropic; cognitive disorders; herbs; memory
Online: 27 September 2020 (10:45:51 CEST)
Background: Alzheimer’s disease affecting about 24 million people world-wide. The socio-economic burden on world-economies costing more than 172 billion US $ annually for the US alone. Objectives: To prepare aqueous extract of T. foenum graecum seeds (FSE) to explore the possible treatment for cognitive deficit in experimental animals. Materials and methods: FSE was subjected to preliminary phytochemical evaluation and antioxidant effect using free radical scavenging method (DPPH). All the animal behavior was video recorded with no human intervention during observation and animal groupings were blinded to avoid investigator bias. Different doses of FSE (5%, 10% and 20%), control, standard (Piracetam, 200 mg/kg, IP.) were given for male albino mice a period of 15 days followed by cognitive assessment in elevated plus maze and novel objection recognition tests. Ttransfer latencies and time exploring novel and familiar objects were recorded in respective tests. Retention of this learned-task was examined again 24 h later and inflexion ratio (IR) and discriminative index (DI) were calculated respectively. Next in the second set of experiment same groups and treatments were continued but scopolamine was administered to all the groups except normal control one hour after the last dose and examined similarly. Results: FSE showed potential antioxidant effect and a dose dependent increase in transfer latency and improved DI indicating a nootropic effect. FSE at 20% showed significant reversal of scopolamine induced dementia in the second set of experiment. Conclusion: FSE improved memory as well as reversed the chemically induced memory deficits in experimental mice.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; arvd; arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; ARVC; VT storm; revised task force criteria 2010; ICD
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:13:29 CEST)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disorder which is characterized by fibrofatty degeneration of cardiac muscles mainly in the right ventricular myocardium. It may cause tachyarrhythmias or right-heart failure or may cause sudden death, especially in young athletes. In our case report, we present a case of young age male patient who presented at a local community hospital with the complaint of atypical chest pain, palpitations, and vomiting and sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) on electrocardiograph (ECG) showing sustained ventricular tachycardia, left bundle branch morphology with the superior axis. The normal sinus rhythm was achieved after multiple DC cardioversion attempts and he was referred to our tertiary care hospital. Later ECG demonstrated epsilon waves and T wave inversion in v1 to v4 and RBBB morphology. The echocardiography showed a severely dilated right ventricle with dysfunction and right ventricle ventricular apical aneurysm. The definitive diagnosis of ARVC was made as per Revised Task Force Criteria 2010 and the electrophysiology review suggested implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) device placement. The patient successfully received a dual-chamber ICD device and he remained asymptomatic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; health literacy; information sharing; family well-being; preventive measures
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:05:51 CEST)
Objective: We tested a model of individual health literacy, information sharing with family members, personal preventive behaviours and family well-being during COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Methods: We analysed data of 1501 randomly selected Chinese adults from a cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong from 9 to 23 April 2020. Individual health literacy, COVID-19 information sharing with family members, preventive behaviours against COVID-19 and family well-being were measured. Structural equation modelling analysis tested the proposed model. Findings: COVID-19 information sharing with family members partially mediated the association between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours. The direct effect of .24 was shown and indirect effect through COVID-19 information sharing with family members was small with .03 (Z = 3.66, p < .001). Family well-being was associated with personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. The model was adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status factors and had good ﬁt with RMSEA = .04, CFI = .98, TLI = .96, and SRMR = .02. Conclusion: COVID-19 information sharing with family members was a partial mediator between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Strategies for enhancing health literacy and preventive measures against COVID-19 are needed to promote family well-being in the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0657.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HIV; workplace intervention; SMS; HIV testing; construction; mobile phone; Covid-19; health promotion; text messaging
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:02:41 CEST)
Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at [email protected] workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n=464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n=9) and message fidelity testing (n=291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were; opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, and four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7,726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4%, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r= -6.24, p=0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusion: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood.
Sat, 26 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (17:32:52 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the one of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. The BARD1-BRCA1 complex is involved in genetic stabilization at the cellular level. It allows to mark abnormal DNA fragments by attaching ubiquitin to them. In addition, it blocks (by ubiquitination of RNA polymerase II) the transcription of damaged DNA. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Infertile women; Hysteroscopy; Clinical pregnancy rate; Live birth rate; No Intrauterine pathology; endometrial stimulation; Systematic review
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:39:39 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this work was to systematically review existing studies on whether hysteroscopy improves the reproductive outcomes of women with infertility even in the absence of intrauterine pathologies when compared to women who did not receive a hysteroscopy. (2) Methods: We established the Participant-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome strategy and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to conduct a systematic review of 11 studies which were retrieved from 3 electronic databases: Ovid-Medline, Ovid-Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Two independent investigators extracted the data from the included studies and used the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool to assess their quality. (3) Results: The primary outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) and live birth rates (LBRs) in the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Hysteroscopy in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies showed higher CPRs and LBRs than those in the same population who did not receive hysteroscopy in cases of recurrent implantation failure and IVF (odds ratio: 1.79 and 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.30 and 1.08-1.97 for CPR and LBR, respectively); however, the degree of significance was not as high for LBR. (4) Conclusions: Hysteroscopy before IVF/ICSI in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies may potentially be effective in improving the CPRs and LBRs in patients with RIF. Robust and high-quality randomized trials are warranted to confirm this finding.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Psoriasis; cutaneous psoriasis; systemic psoriasis; classification criteria; therapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (15:03:59 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory disease. The typical clinical cutaneous manifestation of psoriasis is scaly erythema or plaque, limited or widely distributed. However, psoriasis is far beyond the skin involvement and provides many challenges, including associated comorbidities. In this review, we classify psoriasis as cutaneous and systemic psoriasis, according to the clinical diversity and associated comorbid diseases, and recommend classification criteria for psoriasis. The key objective of this novel classification is to raise awareness of the complexity of this multifaceted disease and help to better understand and manage this complex disease comprehensively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; corona virus; COVID-19; non-parametric model
Online: 26 September 2020 (12:31:57 CEST)
Based on comprehensible non-parametric methods, estimates of crucial parameters that characterise the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on the German epidemic are presented. Where appropriate, the estimates for Germany are compared with the results for six other countries (FR, IT, US, UK, ES, CH) to get an idea of the breadth of applicability and a relational understanding. Thereby, only prevalence data of daily reported new counts of diagnosed cases and fatalities provided by the ECDC are used. Where appropriate, the results are compared with conclusions drawn from using the dataset provided by the RKI. Drawing on uncertain a priori knowledge is avoided. Specifically, we present estimates for the duration from diagnosis to death being 13 days for Germany and about 2 days for Italy as the extremes. Furthermore, based on the knowledge of this time lag between diagnoses and deaths, properly delayed asymptotic as well as instantaneous fatality-case ratios are calculated having superiority compared to the commonly published case-fatality rate. The median of the time series of the instantaneous fatality-case ratio with proper delay of 13-days between cases and deaths for Germany turns out to be 0.024. Asymptotic values are presented for other countries with France ranking highest with a fatality-case ratio of almost 0.2 at its peak. The basic reproduction number, R_0, for Germany is estimated to be between 2.4 and 3.4. The uncertainty stems from uncertain knowledge of the generation time. A delay autocorrelation shows resonances at about 4 days and 7 days, where the latter resonance is at least partially attributable to the sampling process with weekly periodicity. The calculation of the basic reproduction number is based on an evaluation of cumulative numbers of cases yielding time-dependent doubling times as an intermediate step. This allows to infer to the reproduction number during the early phase of onset of the epidemic. In a second approach, the instantaneous basic reproduction number is derived from the incident (counts of new) cases and allows, in contrast to the first version, to infer to the temporal behaviour of the reproduction number during the later epidemic course. To conclude, by avoiding complicated parametric models we provide insights into basic features of the COVID-19 epidemic in an utmost transparent and comprehensible way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT); ultrasound; urethral pain syndrome; epithelial atrophy; epithelial hyperplasia; inflammation; fibrosis; image evaluation
Online: 26 September 2020 (11:23:45 CEST)
Urethral pain syndrome (UPS) is still a pathology in which the diagnosis is formulated as a "diagnosis of exclusion". The exact pathogenetic mechanisms are not yet fully understood and clear recommendations for the prevention and treatment of UPS are absent. The goal of the study was to assess the condition of the tissues in the female urethra in UPS, by using transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and cross-polarization optical tomography (CP OCT). TVUS showed an expansion in the diameter of the internal lumen of the urethra, especially in the proximal region compared with the norm. Compression elastography revealed areas with increased stiffness (presence of fibrosis) in urethral and surrounding tissues. When studied with CP OCT it was shown that with UPS, the structure of the tissues in most cases was changed: trophic alterations in the epithelium (hypertrophy or atrophy) and fibrosis of underlying connective tissue were observed. The proximal fragment of the urethra with UPS underwent changes identical to those of the bladder neck. This paper showed that the introduction of new technology — CP OCT — in conjunction with TVUS will allow verification of structural changes in tissues of the lower urinary tract at the level of their architectonics and will help doctors understand better the basics of the UPS pathogenesis.
Fri, 25 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0610.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mood disorders; major depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:48:43 CEST)
Current diagnoses of mood disorders are not cross validated. The aim of the current paper is to explain how machine learning techniques can be used to a) construct a model which ensembles risk/resilience (R/R), adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), staging, and the phenome of mood disorders, and b) disclose new classes based on these feature sets. This study was conducted using data of 67 healthy controls and 105 mood disordered patients. The R/R ratio, assessed as a combination of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene, PON1 enzymatic activity, and early life time trauma (ELT), predicted the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – paraoxonase 1 complex (HDL-PON1), reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX), staging (number of depression and hypomanic episodes and suicidal attempts), and phenome (the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety scores and the Clinical Global Impression; current suicidal ideation; quality of life and disability measurements) scores. Partial Least Squares pathway analysis showed that 44.2% of the variance in the phenome was explained by ELT, RONS/NOSTOX, and staging scores. Cluster analysis conducted on all those feature sets discovered two distinct patient clusters, namely 69.5% of the patients were allocated to a class with high R/R, RONS/NOSTOX, staging, and phenome scores, and 30.5% to a class with increased staging and phenome scores. This classification cut across the bipolar (BP1/BP2) and major depression disorder classification and was more distinctive than the latter classifications. We constructed a nomothetic network model which reunited all features of mood disorders into a mechanistically transdiagnostic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Genomes; microRNA; SARS-CoV-2; Variant discovery
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:14:46 CEST)
Background SARS-CoV-2 has generated a life-treating pandemic and is the main challenge of this century. Some untranslated regions (UTRs) in SARS-CoV-2 genome, specifically leader sequence and transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) in 5’UTR, can be considered as Achilles' heel of virus. Leader sequence are found at the 5' ends of all encoded transcripts that highlights its importance. TRS can explain the host range and pathogenicity of coronavirus. However, our knowledge on the evolution and the role of UTRs in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity is very limited. This study is a pioneering attempt to unravel the evolution of key regions in 5' UTR of SARS-CoV-2 and discover the inhibitory microRNAs against 5' UTR of virus. Methods Evolution of TRS and leader sequence was compared between human pathogenic (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, and MERS) and non-pathogenic (bovine) coronaviruses. Profiling of microRNAs that can inactive the key UTR regions of coronaviruses, UTR-inhibitory microRNAs, was carried out. Findings We found a distinguished pattern of evolution in leader sequence and TRS of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the other coronaviruses. Mining all available microRNA families against leader sequences of coronaviruses resulted in discovery of 39 microRNAs with an acceptable thermodynamic binding energy against SARS-COV-2, SARS, MERS, Bat Coronavirus, or Bovine Coronavirus. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a distinguished pattern of binding of leader sequence of SARS-CoV-2 against microRNAs, with a lower binding stability. hsa-MIR-5004-3p was the only human microRNA that can target leader sequence of SARS and SARS-CoV-2. However, its binding stability remarkably decreased in SARS-COV-2 (-19.4 kcal/mol), compared to SARS-COV-2 (-25.9 kcal/mol). We found an insertion-type mutation in leader sequence of SARS-COV-2 that results in lower binding stability and escaping of viral leader sequence from hsa-MIR-5004-3p. Altogether, we suggest lack of innate human inhibitory microRNAs to bind to leader sequence and TRS of SARS-CoV-2 contributes to its high replication in infected human cells. On the other hand, mining of two hundred million deposited human genomic variants led us to discovery of 49 missense and splice-disrupt mutations in genomic structure of hsa-MIR-5004-3p. These mutations can negatively affect hsa-MIR-5004-3p function in preventing SARS-CoV-2 replication. Interpretation This study unravels the evolution of key regions in 5’UTR of SARS-CoV-2. Inducing microRNAs to bind to the leader sequence and TRS regions by drugs or food supplements can reduce virus replication. Enhancing the microRNA defence machinery against TRS and leader of virus has a potential to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection at the first place. The mentioned strategy is rapidly achievable against COVID-19. Missense variation in genomic sequence of 5’UTR inhibitory microRNAs, such as hsa-MIR-5004-3p, can be considered as risk factor of COVID-19.
Fri, 24 July 2020
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory failure; ARDS; ventilation; ECMO
Online: 24 July 2020 (04:44:14 CEST)
The rapidly evolving understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure pathogenesis, limited disease-specific evidence and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. In this single-centre retrospective cohort study we describe the outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT) critical care service. Patients were managed according to a local respiratory failure management pathway that was predicated on timely invasive ventilation when indicated and tailored ventilatory strategies according to pulmonary mechanics. Between 2nd March and 25th May 2020 GSTT critical care service admitted 316 patients with confirmed COVID-19. Of the 201 patients admitted directly through the Emergency Department with a completed critical care outcome, 71.1% survived to critical care discharge. These favourable outcomes may serve to inform the wider debate on the optimal ventilatory management in COVID-19.
Wed, 1 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0102.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plants; Mpro; 3CLpro; spike (S) glycoprotein; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 1 July 2020 (08:37:49 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) pandemic, researchers have been trying to investigate several active compounds found in plants that have the potential to inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The present study aimed to evaluate bioactive compounds found in plants by using a molecular docking approach to inhibit the Main Protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The evaluation was performed on the docking scores calculated using AutoDock Vina as a docking engine. A rule of five (RO5) was calculated to determine whether a compound meets the criteria as an active drug orally in humans. The determination of the docking score was done by selecting the best conformation of the protein-ligand complex that had the highest affinity (most negative Gibbs' free energy of binding / ΔG). As a comparison, nelfinavir (an antiretroviral drug), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (anti-malarial drugs recommended by the FDA as emergency drugs) were used. The results showed that hesperidin, nabiximols, pectolinarin, epigallocatechin gallate, and rhoifolin had better poses than nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as spike glycoprotein inhibitors. Hesperidin, rhoifolin, pectolinarin, and nabiximols had about the same pose as nelfinavir, but were better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as Mpro inhibitors. These plant compounds have the potential to be developed as specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19. Several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19. As judged by the RO5 and previous study by others, the compounds kaempferol, herbacetin, eugenol, and 6-shogaol have good oral bioavailability, so they are also seen as promising candidates for the development lead compounds to treat infections caused by SARS-CoV-2.
Wed, 17 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibiotic residue; human health; milk; risk assessment; TLC; UHPLC
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:25:29 CEST)
Consumption of milk contaminated with antibiotic residues above the maximum residue limit (MRL) causes direct toxicity to humans and the development of superbugs that leads to the failure of antibiotic therapy and threatens human life. Besides, long-duration exposure might alter the nature of gut microflora results in the enhancement of many diseases. Therefore, we examined 300 raw and processed packet milk samples using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method against five veterinary antibiotics and assessed the risk for consumers in Chattogram, Bangladesh. Risk analysis was calculated by using hazard quotient on the basis of 165 ml per capita milk consumption. We found a total of 7% prevalence of antibiotic residues in raw milk samples which were higher (8%) in individual samples than the pooled samples (4%). However, we did not find any processed packet milk samples as positive. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline residue was detected 61.29 µg/l and amoxicillin was 124 µg/l in individual milk samples. Risk analysis showed the hazard quotient values of 0.0056 for oxytetracycline and 0.0017 for amoxicillin residue which was confirmed that, no significant health risk associated with the consumption of milk produced and marketed in the study area. Our study might fill the gap of knowledge to measure the safety status of milk regarding public health issues.
Sun, 7 June 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Embalming; Cadaver; Preservation; Thiel embalming; Phenoxyethanol; Salt solution
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:14:51 CEST)
Art of embalming as practised by Egyptian about 3000 years ago transformed into embalming science of modern ages with the use of formaldehyde as a preservative solution. Subsequently, the search for ideal embalming preservative solution continues to date because of the health hazards related to formaldehyde preservation of cadavers. Alternative preservative methods and solutions suitable for making different skill training models with the specific requirement of pliability have also experimented. The literature had documented various solutions like Thiel’s solution and technique, phenoxyethanol preservation, saturated sodium chloride solution, cryopreservation, N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, Ethanol–glycerin and Fix 4life solution as alternatives to formaldehyde preservation. This review is an attempt to have an overview comparison of all the recent alternate embalming methods applicable for developing skill training cadaveric models with an aim of reducing formaldehyde usage in preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; care homes; general practice; hospital discharges
Online: 7 June 2020 (05:49:04 CEST)
Watching the international COVID-19 epidemics unfold during February and early March 2020, we began to highlight how outbreaks in care homes were inevitable, given the vulnerable patients in close proximity, and pressures on social care to help relieve pressure on the NHS. We suggested public health measures would significantly impact on care homes. Specifically we felt all homes would have multiple individuals isolated within days of introduction of guidance requiring isolation of new cough (or fever), and that a clear definition of an outbreak would be needed that differentiated COVID19 from influenza. We share the experiences of a GP practice looking after 900 nursing or dual registration care homes in the London Borough of Ealing in the early stages of the COVID19 Pandemic 2020. We believe that the altered presentation of cases of COVID19 in care homes contributed to the size of outbreaks, and that keeping COVID19 out of homes is the only way to manage this disease, with early isolation and complete segregation of positive and negative cases. We have seen over 300 suspected cases resulting in four fold (n=175) average monthly death rates, three fold usual issue of anticipatory medications, and approximately 32% mortality rate (up to 43% in over 90’s). Discharge pathways from hospital and admissions to care homes must be clear and robust. COVID19 naïve patients should not be admitted to units with outbreaks and COVID19 positive patients should not be admitted to anything other than a designated “hot” home until risk of contagion is passed. Some patients are testing positive at over 30 days since initial mild symptoms.
Wed, 3 June 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0019.v1
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:49:43 CEST)
Background: ethical issues that arise during the care of a pregnant woman with cancer are challenging to physicians, policymakers, lawyers, and the bioethics community. This article is restricted to a discussion of ethical dilemmas and controversial case reports, mainly focused before the third trimester of pregnancy, when a conflict could exist between cancer and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: published literature was retrieved through searches in PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane and Google Academic in April 2020, using appropriate controlled keywords (cancer, neoplasm, pregnancy, ethics). Results were restricted to review articles, ethical perspectives, clinical practice guidelines and case-based teaching guides.Discussion: when a conflict arises in the maternal-foetus dyad, like the one related with cancer treatment and the risk of foetal demise, a range of ethical frameworks might be useful to consider in the decision-making process. Pragmatic theoretical approaches include case-based analysis, ethics of care, feminist theory, and traditional ethical principlism using the framework of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Also, societal and practitioner values could add value and an ethics consultation may be helpful to mediate conflict resolution. The physician must balance autonomy and beneficence-based obligations to the pregnant woman with cancer, along with beneficence-based obligations to the foetus.Conclusions: ethical challenges have received less attention in the literature, particularly before the third trimester of pregnancy. Best, unbiased and balanced information must be granted both to the patient and to the family, regarding the benefits and harms for the woman herself as well as for the foetal outcome.
Thu, 14 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acute Kidney Injury; Gastrointestinal surgery; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 14 May 2020 (12:03:15 CEST)
AIM: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and methods: All the gastrointestinal surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant Results: We performed 331 gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery from April 2018 to March 2020. After exclusion 317 patients were included in study population.14 patients (4.4%) were defined as having acute kidney injury according to acute kidney injury network classifications. On univariate analysis acute kidney injury was associated with open surgery (p= 0.002, Intra operative hypotension (p=0.006), CDC grade of surgery (p<0.001), increased used to blood products (p=0.004), higher ASA grade (p<0.0001), increased operative time(p<0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis higher ASA grade (p=0.001) and increased operative time (0.015) independently predicted acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury was also significantly associated with 90 days mortality. ( p= <0.0001) Conclusion:Post-operative acute kidney injury was associated with significant mortality in gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery. Open surgery, higher CDC grade surgery, more blood products, higher ASA grades, increase operative time predicted acute kidney injury in post operative periods. Higher ASA grades and increased operative time predicted acute kidney injury.
Mon, 11 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 serology; ELISA; N protein; COVID-19; serosurvey
Online: 11 May 2020 (04:53:31 CEST)
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread rapidly around the world, there is an urgent need for validated serological assays to evaluate viral specific antibody responses in COVID-19 patients or recovered individuals. In this study, we established and used indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based serological tests to study the antibody response in COVID-19 patients. In order to validate the assays, we determined the cut-off values, sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays using sera collected from COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia at different time points after disease onset, as well as sera that are seropositive to other human CoVs; namely MERS-CoV, hCoV-OC43, hCoV-NL63, hCoV-229E, and hCoV-HKU1. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid (N) ELISAs that we developed here not only showed high specificity and sensitivity, but also did not show any cross-reactivity with other CoVs. We also showed that all RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients included in our study developed both virus specific IgM and IgG as early as one week after the onset of disease. The availability of these validated assays will enable us to determine the nature and duration of the antibody response mounted in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It will also allow conducting large-scale epidemiological studies to determine evidence of previous exposure to the virus and assess the true extent of virus spread within communities.
Fri, 24 April 2020
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Central Disequilibrium; CNS; covid-19 coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 24 April 2020 (14:07:43 CEST)
We describe a 90-year-old male presenting with disequilibrium, loss of balance and difficulty walking for three days prior to initial presentation. Interestingly, he denied cough, fever or dyspnea prior to arrival. Over the course of 48 hours, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring intubation, diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and was treated in the intensive care unit where he died. Since the initial cases in Wuhan China in Dec 2019, the medical and epidemiological communities have learned much about the presenting features, symptomatology, epidemiology, transmission and common physical, laboratory and radiological findings of this disease. Although common symptoms are already established, it is very important to learn and record atypical symptoms or presentations of this highly contagious disease. By doing so, we will be able to recognize earlier atypical symptoms and prevent the environmental exposure to Health care workers and future patients as well. We report that Central disequilibrium may be such as initial presenting sign and symptom of impending respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2 virus. These atypical findings such as presyncope may precede common respiratory complications of SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibodies; COVID-19; glycans; immunoglobulin M; SARS-CoV-2; pneumonia; prediction; protection
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:25:27 CEST)
The natural history of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is extremely variable, ranging from asymptomatic infection, to pneumonia, and to complications eventually fatal. We propose here the first model, explaining how the outcome of first, crucial 10-15 days after infection, hangs on the balance between the cumulative dose of viral exposure and the efficacy of the local innate immune response (natural IgA and IgM antibodies, MBL). If SARS-CoV-2 runs the blockade of this innate immunity and spreads from the upper airways to the alveoli in the early phases of the infections, it can replicate with no local resistance, causing pneumonia and releasing high amounts of antigens. The delayed and strong adaptive immune response (high affinity IgM and IgG antibodies) that follows, causes severe inflammation and triggers mediator cascades (complement, coagulation, and cytokine storm) leading to complications often requiring intensive therapy and being, in some patients, fatal. Strenuous exercise and high flow air in the incubation days and early stages of COVID-19, facilitates direct penetration of the virus to the lower airways and the alveoli, without impacting on the airway’s mucosae covered by neutralizing antibodies. This allows the virus to bypass the efficient immune barrier of the upper airways mucosa in young and healthy athletes. In conclusion, whether the virus or the adaptative immune response reach the lungs first, is a crucial factor deciding the fate of the patient. This “quantitative and time-sequence dependent” model has several implications for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of COVID-19.
Mon, 20 April 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; drugs; 2019-nCoV; clinical trials; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 20 April 2020 (15:53:56 CEST)
The emergence of new type of viral pneumonia cases in China, on December 31, 2019; identified as the cause of human coronavirus, labeled as "COVID-19," took a heavy toll of death and reported cases of infected people all over the world, with the potential to spread widely and rapidly, achieved worldwide prominence but arose without the procurement guidance. There is an immediate need for active intervention and fast drug discovery against the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Herein, the study provides numerous candidates of drugs (either alone or integrated with another drugs) which could prove to be effective against 2019-nCoV, are under different stages of clinical trials. This review will offer rapid identification of a number of repurposable drugs and potential drug combinations targeting 2019-nCoV and preferentially allow the international research community to evaluate the findings, to validate the efficacy of the proposed drugs in prospective trials and to lead potential clinical practices.
Thu, 16 April 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0272.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2); COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; smell; anosmia; taste; ageusia
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:42:44 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) is a coronavirus which is causing the actual COVID-19 pandemic. The disease caused by 2019 new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was named coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization in February 2020. Primary non-specific reported symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection at the prodromal phase are malaise, fever, and dry cough. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms are fever (98%), cough (76%), dyspnea (55%), and myalgia or fatigue (44%). Nonetheless, recent reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and altered olfactory and taste functions, although smell seems to be more affected than taste. These associations of smell and taste dysfunctions and CoV-2 are consistent with case reports describing a patient with SARS with long term anosmia after recovery from respiratory distress, with the observation that olfactory function is commonly altered after infection with endemic coronaviruses, and with data demonstrating that intentional experimental infection of humans with CoV-299 raises the thresholds at which odors can be detected. Post-viral anosmia and is one of the leading causes of loss of sense of smell in adults, accounting for up to 40% cases of anosmia. Viruses that give rise to the common cold are well known to cause post-infectious loss, and over 200 different viruses are known to cause upper respiratory tract infections. I reviewed the possible mechanisms of smell and taste loss in COVID-19. I concluded that since the existence of such a relationship is likely, it is highly recommended that those patients who experience complications such as smell and/or taste loss, even as unique symptoms, should be considered as potential SARS-CoV-2 virus carriers.
Thu, 9 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0102.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plants; Mpro; 3CLpro; spike (S) glycoprotein; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 April 2020 (12:39:54 CEST)
Background: Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have been trying to investigate several active compounds found in plants that have the potential to inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the cause of COVID-19. The search for plant-based antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 is promising, as several plants have been shown to possess antiviral activities against betacoronaviruses (beta-CoVs) Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate bioactive compounds found in plants by using a molecular docking approach to inhibit Main Protease (Mpro) (PDB code: 6LU7) and Spike (S) Glycoprotein (PDB code: 6VXX) of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Evaluation was performed on the docking scores calculated using AutoDock Vina as a docking engine. For each compound that was docked, a rule of five was calculated to determine whether a compound with certain pharmacological or biological activities might have chemical and physical properties that would make it an active drug orally in humans. Determination of the docking score was done by selecting the conformation of the ligand that has the lowest binding free energy (best pose). As a comparison, nelfinavir (an antiretroviral drug), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (anti-malarial drugs recommended by the FDA as emergency drugs) were used. Results: The results showed that hesperidine, cannabinoids, pectolinarin, epigallocatechin gallate, and rhoifolin had better poses than nelfinavir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as spike glycoprotein inhibitors. Hesperidin, rhoifolin, pectolinarin, and cannabinoids had about the same pose as nelfinavir, but were better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as Mpro inhibitors. These plant compounds have the potential to be developed as specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19. Conclusion: Several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19.
Tue, 7 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plants; Mpro; 3CLpro; spike (S) glycoprotein; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 7 April 2020 (12:08:57 CEST)
Background: Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have been trying to investigate several active compounds found in plants that have the potential to inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the cause of COVID-19. The search for plant-based antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 is promising, as several plants have been shown to possess antiviral activities against betacoronaviruses (beta-CoVs) Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate bioactive compounds found in plants by using a molecular docking approach to inhibit Main Protease (Mpro) (PDB code: 6LU7) and Spike (S) Glycoprotein (PDB code: 6VXX) of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Evaluation was performed on the docking scores calculated using AutoDock Vina as a docking engine. For each compound that was docked, a rule of five was calculated to determine whether a compound with certain pharmacological or biological activities might have chemical and physical properties that would make it an active drug orally in humans. Determination of the docking score was done by selecting the conformation of the ligand that has the lowest binding free energy (best pose). As a comparison, nelfinavir (an antiretroviral drug), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (anti-malarial drugs recommended by the FDA as emergency drugs) were used. Results: The results showed that hesperidine, cannabinoids, pectolinarin, epigallocatechin gallate, and rhoifolin had better poses than nelfinavir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as spike glycoprotein inhibitors. Hesperidin, rhoifolin, pectolinarin, and cannabinoids had about the same pose as nelfinavir, but were better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as Mpro/3CLpro inhibitors. These plant compounds have the potential to be developed as specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19. Conclusion: Several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19.
Mon, 9 March 2020
Online: 9 March 2020 (10:34:58 CET)
An outbreak caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Up to March 2, 2020, at least 80180 cases have been reported. Most of the patients had a history of visiting Hubei Province or contacting with people who had ever stayed in or passed by Hubei Province, or exposed to symptoms. Some patients got infected only from asymptomatic contacts. This study aimed to report the epidemic features and lab identification of a patient confirmed with COVID-19 infection only from asymptomatic contact.
Mon, 2 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; nonstructural proteins (NSP); NSP12; NSP7; NSP8; virtual screening; inhibitor
Online: 2 March 2020 (03:11:33 CET)
A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is initially found to trigger human severe respiratory illness in Wuhan City of China in 2019, has killed 2,718 people in China by February 26, 2020, and which has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern as well. And the virus has spread to more than 38 countries around the world. However, the drug has not yet been officially licensed or approved to treat SARS-Cov-2 infection. NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 complex of SARS-CoV-2, essential for viral replication and transcription, is generally regarded as a potential target to fight against the virus. According to the NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 complex (PDB ID: 6NUR) structure of SARS, two homologous models were established for virtual screening in the present study, namely NSP12-NSP7 interface model and NSP12-NSP8 interface model. Seven compounds (Saquinavir, Tipranavir, Lonafarnib, Tegobuvir, Olysio, Filibuvir, and Cepharanthine) were selected for binding free energy calculations based on virtual screening and docking scores. All seven compounds can combine well with NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 in the homologous model, providing drug candidates for the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2.