ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: clinker; used tires; pollutant gases; energy savings; environment impact
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:11:16 CEST)
The objective of this work is to compare how the gases emitted during the manufacture of the clinker vary in a cement plant, using two types of fuel: petroleum coke and unusable tires (UTs). The study is based on a case study using real time data on more than 40 process variables. Gases are analysed from two points of the production process: Sintering Kiln, main focus of emission to the atmosphere by chimney, and Preheater. The variation of CO and NOx depending on the oxygen and fuel type is studied. The SO2 levels are also analyzed, observing a decrease when using the UTs. The quality of the Clinker has been compared depending on the fuel type. The results are compared, on the one hand, with the quality of the clinker, determined by the content of the majority (C3S, Alite) and minority (Free CaO) phases, and, on the other hand, with the Kiln sintering temperature, the most influential parameter in the productive process. It is verified that Clinker quality is maintained, regardless of the type of fuel used. Concluding that the use of UTs as fuel can generate an important economic and environmental benefit for cement companies and their environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: causal relationship model; disposing of used batteries; households
Online: 16 March 2018 (05:07:24 CET)
This research aimed to develop a causal relationship model of the behavior of a Thai rural community in disposing of used batteries. The variables studied were 1) the household latent variable (three observable variables); 2) the social latent variable (six observable variables); 3) the intention latent variable (three observable variable); and 4) the behavior latent variable (three observable variables). Six hundred households were surveyed using a questionnaire. The questionnaire developed was validated by seven experts and its reliability was established by testing it with a sample group. Results showed that the modified model do present a good overall level of fit. The House and social positively and directly influenced intention. Intention positively and directly influenced behavior. The theoretical and practical implications relating specifically to intention to the behavior in disposing of used dry batteries by households are emphasized. The modified model indicated eighty-nine percent of the variance in the behavior in disposing of used dry batteries by households was explained by the intention factors. The most direct effect on behavior was the intention factors with 0.89 of effect size. The factors with indirect effects on behavior were household and social factors with an effect size of 0.52 and 0.35.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0093.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: used superabsorbent polymer; disposable diapers; swelling capacity; soil conditioner
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:50:27 CET)
This study was conducted to explore the potential of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) from used disposable diapers as soil moisture conditioner. Swelling behavior of the proposed hydrogel in response to external stimuli such as salt solutions, temperature and pH was studied. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of incorporation hydrogel on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pumpkin (C. pepo) seeds. The structure of the superabsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that the proposed SAP exhibited a maximum swelling capacity of 189 g.g-1 of dry gel. It was observed that the swelling capacity decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the swelling medium. When this SAP was mixed with sandy soil, the mixture was able to lose water more slowly. The seeds germination and seedling growth was remarkably influenced by the application of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 w/w% of SAP compared to the untreated soil. Therefore, it follows that it is possible to take advantage of SAPs property from used disposable diapers to retain the moisture in soil as an alternative to value the use of such waste, showing that it has potential for diverse applications in agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0163.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical metamaterials; fundamental concepts in photonics; light-matter interactions at the subwavelength and nanoscale; fundamental understanding of linear and nonlinear optical processes in novel metamaterials underpinning photonic devices and components; advancing the frontier of nanophotonics with the associated nanoscience and nanotechnology; nanostructures that can serve as building blocks for nano-optical systems; use of nanotechnology in photonics; nonlinear nanophotonics, plasmonics and excitonics; subwavelength components and negative index materials; slowing, store, and processing light pulses; materials with such capabilities that could be used for optical sensing, tunable optical delay lines, optical buffers, high extinction optical switches, novel image processing hardware, and highly-efficient wavelength converters
Online: 26 February 2018 (11:24:39 CET)
Backward electromagnetic waves are extraordinary waves with contra-directed phase velocity and energy flux. Unusual properties of the coherent nonlinear optical coupling of the phase-matched ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves with contra-directed energy fluxes are described which enable greatly-enhanced frequency and propagation direction conversion, parametrical amplification, as well as control of shape of the light pulses. Extraordinary transient processes that emerge in such metamaterials in pulsed regimes are described. The results of the numerical simulation of particular plasmonic metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion are presented, which prove the possibility to match phases of such coupled guided ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves. Particular properties of the outlined processes in the proposed metamaterial are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Potential applications include ultra-miniature amplifiers, frequency changing reflectors, modulators, pulse shapers, and remotely actuated sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0088.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:54:02 CEST)
There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by using sol-gel technique in one step synthesis procedure. Moreover, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 with different loading in order to form different active sites such as isolated lithium ions, nanoparticles of Li2O, and bulky crystals of Li2O. The ability of the new compounds to induce apoptosis and prevent necrosis was evaluated on three different types of cancer cell lines which are; liver HepG-2, Breast MCF-7 and colon HCT116. The obtained results show that Li/TUD-1has the ability to control necrosis and thus reduce the side effects of treatments containing silica in the case of lithium has been added to them, especially in chronic cases. This has been demonstrated by the significant increase in the IC50 value and cell viability comparing to control groups. Consequently, the idea is new, so it definitely needs more develop and test with materials that have more apoptotic impact than silica in order to induce apoptosis without induction of necrosis.