ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ultrasonic; Carbon dioxide; Enhanced oil recovery; Unconventional reservoirs
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:25:12 CEST)
CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been proven its capability to explore the unconventional tight oil reservoirs and potential for geological carbon storage. Meanwhile, the extremely low permeability pores exaggerate the difficulty CO2 EOR and geological storage processing in the actual field. This paper initiates the ultrasonic-assisted approach to facilitate the oil-gas miscibility development and finally contribute to unlock more tight oils. First, the physical properties of crude oil with and without ultrasonic treatments were experimentally analysed through gas chromatography (GC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and viscometer. Second, the oil-gas minimum miscibility pressures (MMPs) were measured from the slim-tube test and the miscibility developments with and without ultrasonic treatments were interpreted from the mixing-cell method. Third, the nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) assisted coreflood tests were conducted to physically model the recovery process in porous media and directly obtain the recovery factor. Basically, the ultrasonic treatment (40KHz and 200W for 8 hours) was found to substantially change the oil properties, with viscosity (at 60°C) reduced from 4.1 to 2.8mPa·s, contents of resin and asphaltene decreased from 27.94% and 6.03% to 14.2% and 3.79%, respectively. The FTIR spectrum shows the unsaturated C-H bond, C-O bond and C≡C bond in macromolecules were broken from ultrasonic, which caused the macromolecules (e.g., resin and asphaltenes) to be decomposed into smaller carbon-number molecules. Accordingly, the MMP was determined to be reduced from 15.8 to 14.9MPa from the slim-tube test and the oil recovery factor increased by over 10%. This study reveals the mechanisms of ultrasonic-assisted CO2 miscible EOR in producing tight oils.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Proppant; Hydraulic Fracturing; Unconventional Reservoir; Sand; Settling Rate; Crush Rate; Mesh Size; Grain Diameter; Proppant composition; Micro proppant
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:50:26 CEST)
The paper investigates the possible use of a low strength domestic sand (D) (up to today useless – not considered as proppant source) of small particle sizes, instead to that of high strength imported commercial sand (C), as a prospective micro-proppant for low permeability reservoirs in Poland. There is need to develop national unconventional gas resources like tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane. An important energy source of value and readily available in Poland is coal. The basins of this resource are large and bears low permeability coalbed methane reservoirs which needs to be developed to contribute to the energy security, economy and environmental needs of the country. These reservoirs need technological assistance such as hydraulic fracturing which makes use of proppants for development. Most of the commonly used proppants over the years for fracturing have been large grain size commercial proppants of high strength material content bought abroad. Investigated finer proppants are known to have the ability to penetrate narrow fracture networks to ensure effective high reservoir volume and conductivity for production. Results from presented laboratory research shows the D - proppant, which is cheaper and readily available, has the 3K class with low settling rates as a potential micro-proppant for effective transportation, enhancement of conductivity and production rate in the narrow fractures of low permeability reservoirs. Future using of domestic proppant will decrease stimulation cost and will have positive impact on the environment due to omitting long distance transportation from abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0334.v1
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:41:27 CET)
A recent study by the Wall Street Journal reveals that the hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales have been producing less than forecasted by the industry with the empirical hyperbolic decline curve analysis (DCA). As an alternative to DCA, we introduce a simple, fast and accurate method of estimating ultimate recovery (EUR) in oil shales. We adopt a physics-based scaling approach to analyze oil rates and ultimate recovery from 14,888 active horizontal oil wells in the Bakken shale. To predict EUR, we collapse production records from individual horizontal shale oil wells onto two segments of a master curve: (1) We find that cumulative oil production from 4,845 wells is still growing linearly with the square root of time; and (2) 6,401 wells are already in exponential decline after approximately seven years on production. In addition, 2,363 wells have discontinuous production records, because of refracturing or changes in downhole flowing pressure, and are matched with a linear combination of scaling curves superposed in time. The remaining 1,279 new wells with less than 12 months on production have too few production records to allow for robust matches. These wells are scaled with the slopes of other comparable wells in the square-root-of-time flow regime. In the end, we predict that total ultimate recovery from all existing horizontal wells in Bakken will be some 4.5 billion barrels of oil. We also find that wells completed in the Middle Bakken formation, in general, produce more oil than those completed in the Upper Three Forks formation. The newly completed longer wells with larger hydrofractures have higher initial production rates, but they decline faster and have EURs similar to the cheaper old wells. There is little correlation among EUR, lateral length, and the number and size of hydrofractures. Therefore, technology may not help much in boosting production of new wells completed in the poor immature areas along the edges of the Williston Basin. Operators and policy-makers may use our findings to optimize the possible futures of the Bakken shale and other plays. More importantly, petroleum industry may adopt our physics-based method as an alternative to the overly-optimistic hyperbolic DCA that yields an "illusory picture" of shale oil resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0229.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: unconventional oil and gas development; health survey; anthropogenic impacts; perception
Online: 12 July 2019 (06:28:16 CEST)
The expansion of unconventional oil and gas development (UD) across the US continues to be at the center of debates regarding safety to health and the environment. This study evaluated the water quality of private water wells in the Eagle Ford Shale within the context of community members’ perceptions. Community members (n=75) were surveyed regarding health status and perceptions of drinking water quality. Water samples from respondent volunteers (n=19) were collected from private wells and tested for a variety of water quality parameters. Of the private wells sampled, 8 had exceedances of MCLs for drinking water standards. Geospatial descriptive analysis illustrates the distributions of the well exceedance as well as the well owners’ overall health status. Surveys showed that the majority of respondents received their water from a municipal source and were significantly more distrustful of their water source than of those on private wells. In many cases, there are statistically significant differences between self-reported, provider undiagnosed conditions and self-reported, provider diagnosed conditions. Attitudes and perceptions of water quality may play an important role in the overall perceived health status of community members in high fracking regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0208.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: fracture density; double-layer model; unconventional reservoirs; multicomponent seismic; shear-wave splitting
Online: 16 April 2018 (11:33:54 CEST)
Fracture density, a critical parameter of unconventional reservoirs, can be used to evaluate potential of unconventional reservoirs and location of production wells. Many technologies, such as amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOA) technology, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) technology, and multicomponent seismic technology, are generally used to predict fracture of reservoirs. they can qualitatively predict fracture by analyzing seismic attributes, including seismic wave amplitudes, seismic wave velocities, which are sensitive to fracture. However, it is important to quantitatively describe fracture of reservoirs. In this study, based on a double-layer model, the relationships between fracture density and the double-layer model’s physical parameters, such as velocity of fast shear-wave, velocity of slow shear-wave, and density, were established, and then a powerful quantitative prediction method for fracture density was proposed dramatically. Afterwards, the Hudson model for crack was used to test the applicability of the method. The result shown that the quantitative prediction method for fracture density can be applied suitable to the Hudson model for crack. Finally, the result of validation models indicated that the method can predict fracture density effective, in which absolute relative deviation (ARD) were less than 5% and root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 4.88×10-3.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: actuator; alternator; electrochemomechanical; inverter; more-than-Moore; oil-water interface; oscillator; pH; unconventional computing
Online: 27 March 2020 (11:34:27 CET)
In this article, we report the generation of alternating current by application of constant and ramping DC voltages across oil-water interfaces. The work reported here can be broadly divided into two parts depending on the shapes of oil-water interfaces i.e. flattened and curved. In the first part, an alternating current of ~100 nA (amplitude)was generated by applying a constant DC voltage of -3V& above across a free standing and flattened oil-water interface.In another part, an alternating current of ~150 nA (amplitude) was generated by applying a ramping up DC voltage starting from -5V to 5V, then again ramping back down to -5V for the free standing and curved interface. The suggested qualitative mechanism that engenders such a phenomenon includes the oil-water interface acting like a membrane. This membrane oscillates due to the electrophoretic movement of ions present in aqueous phase by application of a DC voltage across the interface.This electrophoretic movement of ions across oil-water interfaces causes the Faraday instabilities leading to oscillations of the said interface.This method could also be used to study the stress levels in the interfacial films between two immiscible liquids. It explores more-than-Moore’s paradigm by finding a substitute to a conventional alternator/inverter that generates alternating current upon applying DC voltage input. This work would be of substantial interest to researchers exploring alternatives to conventional AC generators that can be used in liquid environments and in the design of novel integrated circuits that could be used for unconventional computing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0027.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant specific insert; aspartic proteinase; vacuolar sorting; unconventional trafficking; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi, N-linked glycosylation
Online: 2 August 2019 (10:05:06 CEST)
In plant cells the conventional route to the vacuole involves the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi and the prevacuolar compartment. However, over the years, unconventional sorting to the vacuole, bypassing the Golgi, has been described, which is the case of the Plant Specific Insert (PSI) of the aspartic proteinase cardosin A. Interestingly, this Golgi-bypass ability is not a characteristic shared by all PSIs, since two related PSIs showed to have different sensitivity to ER-to-Golgi blockage. Given the high sequence similarity between the PSIs domains, we sought to depict the differences in terms of post-translational modifications. In fact, one feature that draws our attention is that one is N-glycosylated and the other one is not. Using site-directed mutagenesis to obtain mutated versions of the two PSIs, with and without the glycosylation motif, we observed that altering the glycosylation pattern interferes with the trafficking of the protein as the non-glycosylated PSI-B, unlike its native glycosylated form, is able to bypass ER-to-Golgi blockage and accumulate in the vacuole. This is also true when the PSI domain is analyzed in the context of the full-length cardosin. Regardless of opening exciting research gaps, the results obtained so far need a more comprehensive study of the mechanisms behind this unconventional direct sorting to the vacuole.