ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Health situation, Health care facilities, Elderly people, Slum areas.
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:12:44 CEST)
The research is carried out to assess factor affecting the health condition of the elderly people in the slum areas in Sylhet City. This research was quantitative type. In Quantitative approach, primary data were collected and used from the randomly selected elderly people in the Sylhet City slum areas. The secondary data were collected from many articles, documents, newspaper, magazine etc. By analyzing the survey data, it is illustrated that the slum dwellers are deprived from the basic needs. Meanwhile, elderly people can‟t fulfill their medical treatment due to their financial condition because of their work incompatibility. This study identifies the factor affecting health condition such as financial condition, lack of knowledge about proper medical facilities, communication gap between the authority and patient, unemployment, and so on. These factors also affect their health situation. Many diseases like asthma, heart disease are occurred. This study also mentions about the livelihood of slum people are so poor in condition. Due to financial condition, aged people can‟t take their proper treatment and their family member can‟t afford it. This study also understands that the people from slum areas are getting concerned about their medical care. They are easily going to the hospital and take their service because of low pricing. On the other hand, people are meanwhile stopped their treatment of financial situation. This study finds the health situation of elderly people at slum areas in metropolitan city and their consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cervical cancer screening; barriers; recommendations; slum; low-resource settings; qualitative
Online: 22 September 2022 (07:31:38 CEST)
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women globally despite being a largely treatable and preventable malignancy. Developing countries account for over 80% of all new cases of cervical cancer. Women residing in low-resource settings such as those residing in slums have a higher risk of cervical cancer, and lower uptake of cervical cancer screening. Diverse barriers influence the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low-resource settings. Objectives: This qualitative study was carried out prior to a cervical cancer screening program and explored women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, and their perceived barriers and recommendations for the program.Method: Four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among 35 women between the ages of 21 – 65 years residing in two urban slums in Lagos, Nigeria. Each FGD was limited to 8-10 participants of women of similar ages. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysis was done using thematic analysis.Results: Most of the women were not aware of cervical cancer and none knew the symptoms or risk factors of cervical cancer. The participants felt that the cervical cancer screening program would be well accepted in the community, however, they expressed concerns about the cost of the screening test and the sex of the person performing the test. The recommendations proffered for a successful cervical cancer screening program include; reducing the cost of the test or providing the test free of charge, having people that speak the local language as part of the team, using female health care providers, using a private location within the community or nearby PHC, and publicizing the program with the use of SMS, phone calls, town crier, and health talks. It was recommended that organizing health education sessions would help improve women’s poorly perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer.Conclusion: Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low resource settings need to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer and address the barriers to cervical cancer screening such as cost, distance, and as much as possible, sex of the healthcare provider should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban sanitation; sewerage network; sewerage connection; low-income community; slum; DSIP; affordability; feasibility; Dhaka; Bangladesh
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:36:01 CEST)
Globally, 2.2 billion urban residents are living without safely-managed sanitation, the majority of whom are slum residents. To improve the situation, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is implementing the Dhaka Sanitation Improvement Project (DSIP), mostly funded by the World Bank. This study assessed the feasibility of connecting low-income communities (LICs) within the proposed sewerage network by 2025. We conducted nine key-informant interviews from DWASA and City Corporation, and 23 focus-group discussions with landlords, tenants and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) from 16 LICs near the proposed catchment area. To achieve connections, LICs would require improved toilet infrastructures and have to be connected to main roads. Construction of large communal septic tanks is also required where individual toilet connections are difficult. To encourage connection in LICs, income-based or area-based subsidies were recommended. For financing maintenance, respondents suggested monthly fee collection for management of the infrastructure by dividing bill equally among sharing households, or by users per household. Participants also suggested the government's cooperation with development-partners/NGOs to ensure sewerage connection construction, operation and maintenance and prerequisite policy changes such as assuring land tenure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0598.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: circulation; informal settlements; COVID-19; coronavirus; physical distancing; social distancing; graph theory; oriented graph; cluster graph; urban planning; architecture; Königsberg; Dharavi; Christopher Alexander; slum; favela
Online: 29 October 2020 (08:44:21 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a wide range of spatial interventions to slow down the spread of the virus. The spatial limitations of narrow public circulation spaces within informal settlements, which house over one billion people around the world, make it impossible for pedestrians to practice physical distancing (or social distancing). In this paper, we propose a flexible mathematical method, named the Cluster Lane Method, for turning a planar circulation network of any size or complexity into a network of unidirectional lanes, making physical distancing possible in narrow circulation spaces by limiting face-to-face interactions. New notions and theorems about oriented graphs in graph theory are introduced. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential implementation of this cost-efficient, low-tech, sustainable solution, and with the introduction of a novel unidirectional tactile paving for the visually impaired.